|Budget Amount *help
¥1,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,800,000)
Fiscal Year 1991 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1990 : ¥1,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,200,000)
The EC unification, including EC 1992, has been making but slow progress because of stagnancy of European economy and political, economic, social confusion in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Because of these worse situations, there have been few new responses of Japanese, European, American Companies to EC 1992.
Japanese corporate responses to EC 1992 ; (a) There is a broad range of motivations for establishing in the EC, with the primary ones being : One phase of globalization strategies, a transition from export to local production, necessity for the collection of information. (b) Broken down by nation, the greatest number of Japanese companies have entered U. K., Germany, and France. A breakdown by industry reveals that the leaders are electrical equipment, machinery, and chemical manufacturers. (c) The primary reasons determining the choice of a country in which to establish an affiliate were : "Good geographic conditions for distribution" , "The ability to hire English speaking managers" , "The existence of a viable infrastructure" , and "The quality of the local workforce" . (d) Measures for responding to EC 1992 included discussions on localization of production, management, and R&D.
Western corporate responses to EC 1992 ; (a) Especially European companies have positively made their cross-boarder reorganizations in the fields of airplane, war, communicating machinery, heavy electric equipment, automobile industries, but they are compelled to review their policies. (b) Both M&A of European companies by American companies have strikingly declined.