|Budget Amount *help
¥1,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1991 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
Fiscal Year 1990 : ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,000,000)
This project consist of 3 parts, that is, a review of literatures, a clarification of behaviors under frustration, and an assessment of intensive husbandry systems from the viewpoint of animal welfare.
1. A revie
As Japanese have not abused fars animals for a long time, we have not considered seriously the protection of fars animals until now. However, the society of animal production started to investigate and discuss animal welfare from 1985 and now it is thought that animal production systems should be considered not only from productivity but also animal welfare.
2. A clarification of behaviors under frustration
Behavioral needs of calves were investigated in terms of an operand conditioning method, which showed that calves had needs for kinetic movements and social behaviors, too. Times spent autogrooming, ruinating, biting inanimates, and sucking inanimates in addition to resting were increased under behavioral deprivation in calves. Giraffes were observed to investigate causes of to
ngue-rolling. Tongue-rolling increased under restriction, social stress, simplication of the environment and feed. suggesting that tongue-rolling was one of frustrated behaviors under psychological stress.
3. An assessment of intensive husbandry systems
Social behavior, suckling behavior, moving behavior and investigating behavior were suppressed and non-nutritive sucking behavior, ruinating behvior and lying behavior were promoted in artificial rearing calves in single pens. Tongue-rolling was especially Promoted in fattening cattle with tethers. Para tongue-rolling in fattening cattle emerged soon after tethering and became gradually stereotypic tongue-rolling. Tongue-rolling decreased in the last stage of fattening. Performance of tongue-rolling suppressed frustrated behaviors, that is, autogrooming and ruminating. Tongue-rolling performers tended to be animals not suffering internal lesions. In addition, the number of tongue-rolling performers tended to increase with carcass grades. These results suggested that tongue-rolling has a suppression effect for psychological stress under behavioral restriction. Investigating behavior, moving behavior, social behavior and reproductive behavior in relation to laying were suppressed in caged hens. It was thought that pecking behavior without getting feed and abnormal behaviors increased in corresponding to these behavioral restrictions. Less