アンドレス・ロペス グアダラハラ, アウトノマ大学・人類学部, 教授
YAMASAKI Masafumi Research Member of The Institute Of Comparative Studies Of International Culture, 比較文化研究所, 研究員
NAKABEPPU Harukazu Associate Professor of Seinan Jogakuin College, 助教授 (00155805)
FUKUMA Toshihide Professor of The Medical Department of Kurume University, 医学部, 教授 (90125146)
MIZUNAMI Akira Professor Emeritus of Kyushuu University, 名誉教授 (50037058)
LOPEZ Andres Professor of The Faculty of Anthropology of Guadalajara Autonoma University
In this research we performed an analytical investigation of integrative conditions of religion, law and medical treatments in Mexican rural villages. Religion, law and medical treatments have long been integrated into the whole cultural complex, which is to be clarified in the actual life of Mexican village communities. We proceeded to analyse the structure and function of Catholic culture complex in a Mexican rural village, Tlajomulco. We have been conducting intensive research on the reality and function of Mexican Catholic culture complex in terms of the structure of sense of time, sense of space and the social structure. So our research is mainly concerned with the form and function of compadrazgo, posada and cruzificacion.
Compadrazgo (ritual kinship) is the most widespread intimate spiritual social relationship, into which a man or a woman may enter on such occasions as baptism, confirmation, primera communion and marriage. Compadrazgo in one family involves more than 200 sociall
y connecting network. Posada and crucification is a social drama in which a Catholic sacramental mental attitude could be revitalized vividly and intensively in deep lively association with the birth and death of the God, Christ. This is a coercive and integrative force for a Catholic mentality which constructs the basis and core of the whole Catholic culture.
The most forward-looking aspects of the Mexican Constitution, especially the Burgoa's theoretical study of the Constitution is the unprecedented renovation of long established positive Constitution through incorporation of the latest Thomist constitution which has assumed greater prominence in the academic field of the Constitutional law in Germany, france, Belgium, Spain and Latin America. More than that, the Constitution of Mexico has for its object the twofold contribution to the comparative study of Constitutional law : one is the serious warning against total unproductiveness of the superficial comparative study of constitutions among the nations without any theoretical working hypothesis of comparison, and the other is against the realization of indispensability of common dimensions for meaningful comparative study, which should be universal innate penetration to the fundamental principle of the Constitutional law.
In the world history of the Constitutional law, the Constitution of Mexico established in 1917 deserves the highest terms of praise in terms of Article 27 under which the strict limitation of propriety rights is provided for socialistic organization. Article 27 has won as much critical acclaim as Article 153-155 of the Weimar Constitution, and it stipulates a number of provisions concerning ejido system that ejido is communal land ; ejido should be legally assigned to every peasant who claims to cultivate it ; the pro rata allotment of ejido should not be object of transaction or lease, and it should be justly forfeited unless it is cultivated for successive 2 years. The ejido system involves several problems just as did the japanese land reform Kochikomin (state ownership of land and citizen) in the 7th century. It may well be ideal land system to some but it is naturally the worst one to others. Yet ejido still occupies an important position in the whole agricultural land system in Mexico today. The ejido and other lands of proprietor construct the core of agricultural land in all Mexican villages. The ejido land bill has recently undergone a great reform.
An analytical investigation of parasites in Mexican village communities was carried out in terms of the research into Leishmania, whose vector are sandflies and whose pathogenic microbe is the genus Leishmania of schistosomiasis flagellate. Once the fly bites some part of human body transacting its pathogens which in some time sufficiently develop inside the body to cause it to die. Through the study of parasitosis in Mexico, the cultural ecological background of Mexico today can be elucidated.
Marakame, who performs social positions of religious leader or priest, political administer and traditional curer, discharges an extremely significant social role in the Huichole cultural complex. Hand massages, mouth sucking-out of the supposed disease and presentation of it compose the Marakame's curing, in which the cross carries an important meaning as well. The mechanism of Marakame's mouthsucking out of the disease will contribute to the clarification of shamanism.
In a Catholic mayan community, Mani, Men (priest=curer) tries to cure almost all diseases. Men's curing includes not only mayan traditional mode of curing and aetiology but also Catholic curative means and Catholic interpretation of the causes of diseases. To be concrete, several causes of diseases are believed to have derived from the castigation of sacred images in Catholic churches, and miracles from sacred images are on a great number of occasions crucial factor to relate his or her recovery from diseases. What is more, some big festivals have been observed for the miraculous curative force of the saints and the sacred in Catholic. Less