Grant-in-Aid for international Scientific Research
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||Nihon University|
TAKASU Toshiaki Nihon Univ. Sch. Med., Prof. Neurol., 医学部, 教授 (90010024)
WAGAR M.A. Aga Khan Univ., Prof. Biochem., 医学部, 教授
YASMEEN Akba カラチ市立アバシシャヒード病院, 医長
SHAHANA U.Ka カラチ大学, 準教授
AKRAM D.S. Dow Medical College, Prof. Pediatr., 教授
AHKTAR Ahmed ダウ医科大学, 教授
IGARASHI Akira Nagasaki Univ. Inst. Trop. Med., Prof. Virol., 熱帯医学研究所, 教授 (40029773)
KAMIMURA Kiyoshi Toyama Med. Pharm. Univ. Sch. Med., Assoc. Prof. Parasitol., 医学部, 助教授 (00115164)
DOI Rikuo Yokohama Munic. Univ., Prof. Hyg., 医学部, 教授 (70091585)
ISHII Keizo S.R.L., Special Consultant, 特別顧問
ISOMURA Shin Nagoya Univ. Sch. Med., Prof. Med. Zool., 医学部, 教授 (00064832)
YOSHIKAWA Yasuhiro N.I.H. Tsukuba Primate Center, Director, 筑波医学実験用霊長類センター, 所長 (80109975)
YAMANOUCHI Kazuya Japan Inst. Biol. Sci., Chief Reseacher, 主任研究員 (30072888)
KONDO Kiyotaro Hokkaido Univ. Sch. Med., Prof. Publ. Health, 医学部, 教授 (80018366)
SHAHANA Kazmi U. Karachi Univ., Prof. Microbiol.
AKHANI Yasmeen Abbass Shaheed Hosp., Chief Pediatr.
AHMED Akhtar Dow Medical College, Prof. Neurol.
M.A.WAQUR アガカーン大学, 医学部・生化学, 教授
SHAHANA U Ka カラチ大学, 生物学部, 準教授
D.S.AKRAM ダウ医科大学, 小児科, 教授
橋本 信夫 北海道大学, 教授 (60082103)
高島 郁夫 北海道大学, 助教授 (30002083)
WAQUR Anwar アガハーン医科大学, 教授
AKBANI Yasme アバシシャヒード病院, 医長
AHMED Akhtar ダウ医科大学, 教授
|Project Period (FY)
1991 – 1993
Completed(Fiscal Year 1993)
|Budget Amount *help
¥16,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥16,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥5,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥5,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1991 : ¥5,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,500,000)
|Keywords||Pakistan / Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis / Japanese encephalitis virus / West Nile virus / Measles / Measles vaccine / PCR / Acute encephalitis / 日本脳炎 / HLA / パキスタン;カラチ / ワクチン接種 / 蚊|
An elevated SSPE occurrence persisted during 1991-93 in Karachi, Pakistan ; 36 new cases were registered at Civil Hospital Karachi in that period (1.3 per million Karachi population annually), of which 29% were from early measles (EM ; at ages 0-1) and 7.1% from late measles (LM ; at ages 2 or over). SSPE attack rates were 22 per million for whole measles (at all ages) sufferers, 22 for EM and 21 for LM sufferers.
Measles incidence is decreasing (2888 per ten thousands below age 15 in 1978 and 380 in 1987). In Karachi measles ages spread to high in epidemic and concentrated to low ages in sporadic occurrences. Measles vaccination was expanded ; in Karachi coverage was 66% among children below 15 and 82% among those below 5. Clinical efficacy of vaccination and positive rate of NT antibody among children after vaccination who did not suffer measles both were around 75%.
A case control study raised abnormalities in pregnant mothers, neonatal abnormalities, early measles and illnesses prior to SSPE as risk factors. Immunological study results suggest that low socioeconomic class children exposed to frequent mixed microbial infection might have more often measles complication and persistent infection because of excessive immunological burden, and high socioeconomic class children escaped from frequent infection until late measles might have more often persistent infection and both might be a risk factor for the high SSPE incidence there.
West Nile (WN) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus genome sequences detected with PCR in 8 and 1 CSF specimens among 24 taken from acute encephalitis cases during 1992, combined with Ig M-ELISA study results, indicate that WN virus is a significant cause of acute encephalitis after 1989 and JE is another cause.
Negative WN and JE virus isolation from 118,756 wild Cx. tritaeniorhynchus in 779 pools collected during 1990-92 in Karachi and Haleji Lake suggest that these viruses will not always be inhabitable in those areas.