MARUYAMA Fumihiro Sugiyama Women's College, Department of Human Sciences, Associate Professor, 人間関係学部, 助教授 (60144888)
KANEKO Motohisa University of Tokyo, Department of Education, Adssociate Professor, 教育学部, 助教授 (10185936)
YAMAMOTO Shin'ichi University of Tsukuba, Research Center for University Studies, Associate Profess, 大学研究センター, 助教授 (10220469)
KIKUCHI Jyoji Osaka University, Department of Human Relations Science, Professor, 人間科学部, 教授 (00027963)
ICHIKAWA Shogo National Institute for Educational Research, Vice-President, 次長 (00000050)
Higher education in Japan has expanded mainly dues to the extension of the universities founded by private sector. As a consequence, the degree of dependence of higher education costs on ffamily sector have become larger. Especially, since 1980 the educational expenditure on family has been greater and greater. There is, however, no social consensus that the governmental expenditure on the higher education shoul increase, and on the other hand, the character of national universities are getting similar to the private ones step by step. Is this direction right?
Opinions for the reforming of universities are now in the boom, but discussion based on the sound understanding of both reforming plans and actual state around educational costs is few.
We have thought that it is important to study around the costs of higher education. So, in our report the actual state of the costs of higher education is analyzed from the following three points of view, to find out some political implications on t
he problem ; who sould bear the costs of the higher education.
1.By what and how the tuition fees decided?
Besides positive analyzes if the changes of school fees and their causes, poliyical philpsophy and decision-making process of school fees are considered.
2.Scholarships contribute to the equality of oppotunities for higher education?
In addition to the universities, graduate schools are analyzed. And the cases in U.S.A.is considered in comparison, where Scholarships have contribute successfully.
3.The difference of family income between university types.
There exisis many types of universities, as founded by government or private sector, locate urban or rural area, lovcate student's native district or not, and so on. The difference of family income between these types of university is distinguished. Results of this analysis implicate us the effect of family income on the choice of university. And, at the same time, the role of the national universities on the equality of oppotunities for higher education is considered.
Finally, we clarified further subject based on the findings of our analyzes.
The higher education in Japan is now at a turning point. Differences of functions between sections, national, public, and private university, are getting obscure, and the division of professional school, college, university, and graduate school is more unfixed.
As a result, the traditional way of funding for the higher education is no more effective. To re-struct ways of funding for new higher education system, we should again discuss who should pay the costs of higher education, how the governmental support for higher education should be. Less