|Budget Amount *help
¥4,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 1991 : ¥3,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,200,000)
Having various species, the genus Vitis hs been cultivated from remote age and then distributed throughout the world. Among these species, few has been clearly known about their origin and their genetic analyzes have not been thoroughly investigated. As they may be used as breeding materials, their genetic relationships should be clearly defined.
Two highly variable enzyme systems of glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) were usued to investigate the parentages of grape cultivars. Of 35 parent/offspring combinations that we investigated, 30 combinations gave alleles in the offspring which were presentedin the reported parents, whereas 5 combinations gave alleles to the offspring which were not extractable from the reported parents. The Gpi-2 genotype of 'Hiro Hamburg' and the Pgm-2 genotype of 'Pione' indicated that 'Koshu Sanjuku' and 'Cannon Hall Muscat' may not have been the paternal parent respectively.
The Gpi-2 genotype of 'New Niagara' and the Gpi-2 and Pgm
-2 genotypes of 'Beniyamabiko' indicated that 'Niagara' and a htbrid from 'DxK-151' x 'Delaware' may not have been the maternal parent respectively. The Gpi-2 genotype of 'Cannon Hall Muscat' grown in Japan indicated that this cultivar may not have originated as a tetraploid sport of 'Muscat of Alexandria'.
Inheritance and variation of glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) isozymes in Vitis and their usefulnesses in triploid grape breeding were investigated. No isozyme variations were observed within cultivars. Onelectrophoretic analysis of 99 diploid cultivars, 20 diploid plants from 8 wild species, and their progenies, thirteen alleles were found for Gpi-2 and eleven for Pgm-2. The data indicated high degree of genetic divergence between species in Vitis. Subsequently, genotypes for Gpi-2 and Pgm-2 were determined in 6 diploid cultivars and 4 tetraploid cultivars used for crossings. Of 98 seedlings from 15 controlled crosses betweenthe diploid and tetraploid cultivars, 92 exhibiting trisomic gene expression were determined to be triploid hybrids, while 6 exhibiting disomic gene expression were determined to be diploidplants produced by contaminating pollen. These results indicate that the two highly variableenzyme systems are very useful for breeding and phylogenetic study in grape.
Three enzyme systems of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH), Formate Dehydrogenase (FDH) and Superoxide Dismutase (SDH) were used. One activity zone in IDH and FDH, and three zones (SOD-1, SOD-2, SOD-3), each was a dimetric, were significant. Moreover, in 223 cultivars and 9 wild species having enzyme variabilities that we investigated, 8 banding patterns in IDH, 6 patterns in FDH, 2 patterns in SOD-1, 4 patterns in SOD-2 and 3 patterns in SOD-3 were abserved.
Consequently, in addition to the enzyme systems of GPI-2 and PGM-2 that we proposed, these three enzyme systems may be considered as useful markers to study cultivar identifications and genetic variabilities.
From those results, the genotypes of grape cultivars were further investigated. All cultivars selected from bud mutations were genetically the same. Of 218 cultivars investigated, Gpi-2 was able to detect 13 cultivars, Pgm-2 was 9 cultivars, Idh-1 was 3 cultivars, Sod-1 and Sod-3 were not able to detect any cutivars, and Sod-2 and Fdh-1 were each 1 cultivars as those might not have been genetically originated from others. Moreover, 145 cultivars were detected through these 7 locus combinely as those might have possibly been originated from others.
Thereafter, if alleles and locus that are presumed to control enzymes being thoroughly investigated recently are clearly understood, the possibilities of identification of cultivar genotypes by isozyme may be higher. Less