|Budget Amount *help
¥1,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 1991 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
(1) The major objectives of science and technology policies in Japan and the United Kingdom show rather opposite directions. As one of the scientific super power in the world, the major objectives in the United kingdom is to apply the scientific activity into industrial production so as to strengthen her economy. On the contrary, the major aim in Japan is to make the scientific activity more creative. Thus, it is better to learn lessons from the history of the United Kingdom whose science has kept best status rather than from her recent policy issues.
(2) There is a dual resource allocation system in the United Kingdom, which consists of a general university fund distribution and specified resource allocations through Research Councils. The latter seems to work out effectively to promote competition among disciplines. A group of researchers who has had fruitful results earns more resources to become a center of excellence.
(3) A network often described as "invisible college" is a desirable model for a center of excellence in Japan.
(4) Kakenhi (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research by Ministry of Education, Science and Culture) is one of a major selective research fund in Japan, under which anonymous referees choose best applications to be funded. In Kakenhi system, however, researchers tend to compete within the limits of their own disciplines. We recommend that Kakenhi should expand a fund open to competition between disciplines. In this context, Jutenkenkyu (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas) should expand and make its function clearer to be a fund for competition between disciplines.