History of an Idea of "Chemical Process" in Prewar
Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||RITSUMEIKAN UNIVERSITY|
JIDO Yuji Ritsumeikan University, Faculty of Business Administration, Professor, 経営学部, 教授 (80066703)
|Project Period (FY)
1991 – 1992
Completed(Fiscal Year 1992)
|Budget Amount *help
¥1,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥400,000)
Fiscal Year 1991 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
|Keywords||chemical process / chemical apparatus / history of chemical engineering / acid-alkali industry / iodide industry / 酸・アリカリ工業 / 化学機械 / 工業化学史|
1. We studied the history of formation of the idea, "chemical process" in Japan concerning the followings :
(1) historical changes of terminologies of operation, apparatus and process in the textbooks of chemical technologies, industrial chemistries, chemical engineering and other allied fields concerning acid industries and alkali ones in prewar Japan.
(2) problems on chemical resources on which the development of combination processes depend.
(3) a historical process of investigations on technologies in production processes in factories.
(4) and effects that the industrial development in construction of chemical apparatus gave to the formation of the idea of "chemical process" in 1930s.
2. We obtained the following results
(1) main operations remained empirical in the sulfuric acid industry and iodide one where resources were abundant in Meiji period. To the contrary, in the case of the soda industry where resources were not always abundant, engineering methods were introduced and developed.
(2) in 1930s, an scientific understanding on various chemical processes proceeded under the condition that chemical apparatuses had to be designed and constructed in Japan, but there remained many confusions in terminologies on "apparatus", "machine", "process" and allied ones.
(3) discussions on the terminologies, "chemical machine" and "chemical apparatus" played an important role to progress the understanding on "chemical process", while "unit operation" in USA, and "Verfahren" or "Apparat" in Germany.
Research Products (5results)