DATTA Ansu National Institute of Development Research and Documentation, Botswana Universit, 開発研究所, 教授
NONAKA Ken'ichi Faculty of Humanities, Mie University, 人文学部, 講師 (20241284)
OONO Hitomi Faculty of Foreign Language, Reitaku University, 外国語学部, 講師 (70245273)
NAKAGAWA Hiroshi Faculty of Foreign Language, Tokyo University of Foreign Language, 外国語学部, 講師 (70227750)
IKEYA Kazunobu Faculty of Letters, Hokkaido University, 文学部, 助手 (10211723)
OSAKI Masakazu Institute of Natural Environment Science, Himeji University of Technology, 自然科学研究所, 講師 (40254453)
田中 二郎 京都大学アフリカ地域研究センター, 教授 (30027495)
ITANI Jun'ichiro Faculty of Humanities, Kobe-Gakuin University, 人文学部, 教授 (10025257)
TANAKA Jiro Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ダッタ A ボツワナ大学, 開発研究所, 教授
|Budget Amount *help
¥30,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥30,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥9,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥9,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥10,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥10,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,500,000)
This research focuses on the socio-cultural change in an egalitarian society of/Gui and //Gana speaking hunter-gatherers under the settlement which had begun since 1979. Intensive field researches was carried out at ! Koi! Kom in the Xade (! q'are) area locating near the mid-Western border of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana. Comparison was made with the recent development of the ! Kung San (Zu/hoasi) residing in the Nyae Nyae area, Namibia.
The analysis of population dynamics exemplified striking increase of birth rate and distinct decrease of infant mortality. The penetration of cash economy through the wage labor and the selling of folk-crafts not only affects the socio-economic arrangement, but causes serious incongruence of traditional norms with modern values. The introduction of new way of subsistence, i. e. , agriculture and goat-raizing, re-organizes social relationships which were previously based on a quite fluid tendency of grouping.
Analysis of everyday conversati
on threw light on specific aspects of social conflict to the settlement, the most conspicuous of which was between the San and the Bakgalagadi agro-pastoralist. It also elucidates logics underlying various kinds of speech acts, su1h as requesting, requiring, and criticizing, as well as the characteristics of communal decision-making process.
By means of linguistic research, the basic vocabulary of/Gui and//Gana dialects comprizing more than 2,000 words were collected, of which phonetic features, as well as phonemic organization, were confirmed. Further, morphological and syntagmatic structure of both dialects were ascertained. Other researchers are collaborating with the linguists in order to compile an inclusive dictionary.
We have also paid the special attention on several eco-cultural complexes embodying the folk-view toward the "nature" , i. e. , regulation and taboo of animal food, folk-taxonomy of birds, gathering and cooking of many species of insect, and cognition system of invertebrates based on the essentially omnivorous diet. From the viewpoint of anthropology of women, a female researcher recorded the life histories of several/Gui women, which includes a body of detailed descriptions concerning the elaborated symbolic devices constituting the ritual for the first menstruation.
The staff of the University of Botswana compared the sociological data from the field research, with documents and publications before and after the independence, so as to elucidate both the features of the relationship between the San and the Bantu agro-pastoralists, and the transition in the policy for governing the San from the colonial to Botswana government. Less