Grant-in-Aid for Overseas Scientific Survey.
|Research Institution||Kyoto University|
SUGIYAMA Yukimaru Professor, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, 霊長類研究所, 教授 (20025349)
大沢 秀行 京都大学, 霊長類研究所, 助教授 (60027498)
横田 直人 大分短期大学, 園芸科, 講師 (30158365)
松沢 哲郎 京都大学, 霊長類研究所, 教授 (60111986)
中川 尚史 シオン短期大学, 教養学科, 助教授 (70212082)
コーマン ジェレミー ギニア国, ニンバ山研究所, 所長
NKAGAWA Naofumi Assistant Professor, Shion Junior College
YOKOTA Naoto Lecturer, Oita Junior College
MATSUZAWA Tetsuro Professor, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University
OHSAWA Hideyuki Assistant Professor, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University
KOMAN Jeremy Director, Laboratoire Monts Nimba
|Project Fiscal Year
1992 – 1994
Completed(Fiscal Year 1994)
|Budget Amount *help
¥25,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥25,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥7,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥7,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥8,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥8,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥10,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,000,000)
|Keywords||Hammer-anvil using / Ant-catching wand / Leaf-sponge / Pestle-mortar using / Tool-composite / Cultural transmission / Mixed-species group / Promiscuity / ハンマー使用 / アリ釣り棒使用 / 水飲みスポンジ使用 / 臼杵使用 / 複合道具使用 / 文化伝播 / 異種混群 / 繁殖独占 / チンパンジー / 生態学 / 道具使用 / 食物資源 / 森林生産量 / 人口学 / 葉っぱスポンジ使用 / アリ釣り / 交尾・繁殖成功度|
We have carried out the comparative ethology and ecology of chimpanzees and monkeys at different environment of west Africa. Study fields were Bossou and Monts Nimba at the frontier of Guinea and Ivory Coast for chimpanzees, Tai of Ivory Coast for Cercopithecoid monkeys, and Kalamaloue of Cameroon for patas monkeys. Main results were as follows.
1. Behavior of hammer-anvil using for cracking hard-nuts by chimpanzees was analyzed. They begin this behavior at 3-4years old but are keen at about 10. Some are right and others are left hand users, however, at least adults show exclusive laterality in hammer-use.
2. Chimpanzees collect and eat aggressive safari-ants using wand. Sixty wands were examined their characteristics and also user's age-sex.
3. Leaf-sponge using for drinking water by chimpanzees was analyzed their seasonality, preference of leaf species, and user's age-sex from about 100 episodes.
4. Pestle-pounding behavior by chimpanzees using a leaf-stalk of oil-palm at its top was first recorded for making and drinking sap. In a few cases chimpanzees collected sap with "fiber-sponges" as tool-composite.
5. Coula edulis is a target for hammer-using at Yeale, Monts Nimba, and absent at Bossou. Some Coula nuts were presented to Bossou chimpanzees. Only an adult female cracked it, juveniles gradually learned but others neglected. Field experiment using "false-nut" suggested that she immigrated from a "Coula forest" .
6. Flora of Bossou was listed up and its use by human and chimpanzee was made clear.
7. Interspecies vocal communication in a mixed-species group by 7 species of monkeys were analyzed at the rain-forest of Tai.
8. Although patas monkeys of dry-savanna have uni-male-group but promiscuous breeding was detected by DNA fingerprinting.