YOSHINO Ryozo. Associate Professor, Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 領域統計研究系, 助教授 (60220711)
KURABAYASHI Yoshimasa. Professor, Tokyo-Eiwa Women's University, 人文学部, 教授 (20017651)
SATOH Seizaburo Professor, Keio University, 教授 (50012331)
TOMINAGA Ken'ichi. Professor, Keio University, 環境情報学部, 教授 (70011286)
MISUMI Jifuji. Professor, Kurume University, 教授 (30037022)
SASAKI Masamichi. Professor, Hyogo-Kyoiku University, 学校教育学部, 教授 (30142326)
HAYASHI Chikio. Emeritus Professor, Institute of Satatistical Mathematics, 名誉教授 (50000188)
Since their defeat in World war II, Japan and Germany, with their similar experiences of American Occupation, have seen significant economic recoveries-recoveries of nearly miraculous proportion. Although the two nations exist in two different cultures-the Eastern and Western worlds-they exhibit many social and cultural similarities. The purposes of this project were threefold.
The first purpose was to compare and contrast the social and cultural spheres of the two countries by focusing on people's attitudes, ways of thinking and ways of life, all of which have become increasingly important to democratic societies as they focus on national public policies and the directions they will take in the future.
The second objective was to determine how the elements identified by the first objective relate to social structure, social change (including economic stability and instability), and the socialization process (with its inherent similarities vis-a-vis World War II and the American occupati
ons, and the two Germanys' diversified experiences vis-a-vis capitalism and communism as well as their ultimate reunification).
The third objective, based on the findings from the first two objectives, attempted to forecast the future directions of both nations.
To achieve these objectives, the project teams were composed of experts in several fields, including two sociologists, one specializing in social stratification, modernization and social change and the other specializing in educational institutions and student socialization, an economist specializing in the study of quality of life from an economic perspective ; two psychologists, one specializing in industrial psychology (including studies of the work ethic, motivation and the meaning of work) and one specializing in personality and its relation to differing cultures ; a political scientist specializing in political thought, ideology and attitudes, and two statisticians specializing in survey methodologies and general social attitudes.
Utilizing cultural link analysis (invented by the project team) and cohort analysis, the team, by reanalyzing existing data for both nations (ZA for Germany and the Institute of statistical Mathematics for Japan), achieved the first and second objectives. In addition, the second objective was further achieved through exchange of information and ideas generated by correspondence and personal visits between the two national teams. The third objective was achieved through visits by the Japanese team members to ZA, where the results of the research findings were exchanged.
Through these mutual exchanges of information, we have come to deepen our understandings of one another, which in turn has contributed to our perceptions of the needs for future directions in both nations. In this regard, we have found that we require additional data, which means carrying out additional surveys to better achieve the third objective, using a questionnaire drawn up by our research project based on our previous findings. Less