Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas.
|Research Institution||Tokyo Institute of Technology|
OKADA Norihiro Tokyo Institute of Technology, Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Professor, 生命理工学部, 教授 (60132982)
OHSAWA Shozo Biohistory Research Hall, Adviser, 顧問 (10034620)
KIKUCHI You Toyohashi University of Technology, Faculty of Technology, Professor, 工学部, 教授 (40273320)
宮田 隆 京都大学, 理学部, 教授 (20022692)
坂本 健作 東京大学, 大学院・理学系研究科, 助手 (50240685)
KUMA Keiichi Kyoo University, Faculty of Science, Research Associate, 理学部, 助手 (10221938)
TANAKA Yoshimasa University of Tsukuba, Institute of Biological Science, Professor, 生物科学系, 教授 (80091908)
村田 成範 東京工業大学, 生命理工学部, 教務職員
村田 茂範 東京工業大学, 生命理工学部, 教務職員
MURATA Shigenori Tokyo Institute of Technology, Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Teaching
|Project Fiscal Year
1992 – 1995
Completed(Fiscal Year 1996)
|Budget Amount *help
¥83,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥83,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥19,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥19,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥20,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥20,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥20,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥20,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥22,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥22,500,000)
|Keywords||RNA World / ribosome / tRNA / aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase / tRNA identity / archaea / eukaryotes / bacteria / RNAワールド / リボザイム / アミノアシルtRNA合成酵素 / tRNAアイデンティティー / 古細菌 / 真核生物 / 真正細菌 / レトロポゾン / アミノアシル合成酵素 / 進化 / アイデンティティ / 微量塩基成分 / RNA世界 / リジンtRNA / プライマー / 逆転写 / RNaseP|
This research group tried to elucidate the mechanisms of generation and evolution of functional RNAs, and in particular those in the RNA World. For this purpose, (1) structures and functional mechanisms of the natural catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) and new functional RNAs created by the SELEX techniques were investigated, and (2) the evolutional processes of tRNAs and proteins involved in protein biosynthesis were studied at nolecular level in order to elucidate their origins.
(1) The ribozyme mechanism of the M1 RNA of RNase P were elucidated by construction of a novel ribozyme that undergoes self cleavage. It was shown that the ligation reaction spontaneously occurs for RNA molecules with the terminal 2', 3'-cyclic phosphate groups. Several new functional RNAs were created by SELEX,and their roles in the RNA World were discussed.
(2) The identity determinants of tRNAs from E.coli and yeast were nearly completely established, by biochemical and genetic methods. Many human genes for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were cloned. Thus, the origins of synthetases were classified as archaeal, eukaryotic, and bacterial. Furthermore, sme synthetase genes were indicated to have been horizontally transferred from one organism to another. Two functionally different modified nucleotides, archaeosine from archaea and queuosine from eukaryotes and eubacteria, were found unexpectedly to share the same biosynthetic mechanism of base exchange.