湯山 賢一 文化庁, 文化財保護部・美術工芸課, 主任文化財調査官
AYAMURA Hiroshi NARA NATIONAL RESEACH INSTITUTE OF CULTURAL PROPERTY,HISTORY DIVISION,THE CHIEF, 歴史研究室, 室長 (20000507)
MASUDA Katsuhiko TOKYO NATIONAL RESEACH INSTITUTE OF CULTURAL PROPERTY,DEPARTMENT OF RESTORATION, 修復技術部, 第二修復技術室長 (40099924)
NAGAMURA Makoto NIPPON JOSHI UNIVERSITY,THE FACULTY OF LETTERS,PROFESSOR, 文学部, 教授 (40107470)
黒川 高明 東京大学, 史料編纂所・古代史料部, 助教授 (90013276)
杉本 一樹 宮内庁, 正倉院事務所, 研究員
YUYAMA Kenichi AGENCY FOR CULTURAL AFFAIRS,FINE ARTS DIVISION,UNIT CHIEF SPECIALIST,CULTURAL PR
SUGIMOTO Kazuki THE IMPERIAL HOUSEHOLD AGENCY,THE OFFECE OF SHOSOIN,INVESTIGATOR
|Budget Amount *help
¥16,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥16,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥3,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥4,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥9,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥9,100,000)
We reseach into the historical changes of 'Monjo-Ryoshi' (writing paper for documents)in ancient and medieval times by many historical records, so we found some kinds of paper such as 'Kamiyagami', 'Danshi', 'Hikiawase', 'Suibaragami' and 'Torinoko' etc.. Concerning 'Monjo-Ryoshi' in Heian era, 'Kamiyagami' was used for important public documents as 'Koshi' (public paper), on orther hand, 'Danshi' , that is to say, a kind of 'Choshi' (paper made from paper mulberry) which was produced in a rocality, was used for insignificant documents and private ones. In the late Heian era, 'Danshi' had driven out 'Kamiyagami', whose quality was poor, and had become writing paper for important public documents.
As it set in Kamakura era, in Kyoto, 'Danshi'developed into 'Koshi', and specialized 'Taka-Danshi' (large 'Danshi') and 'Danshi' (general 'Danshi'). In the late Kamakura era, the better one of general 'Danshi's was called 'Hikiawase', and used for the writing paper of lettres by upper nobels an
d bonzes. In Kamakura, 'Onkudashibumigami' was used for 'Kudashibumi' and 'Gechijo' etc.by 'Bakufu' , while 'Suibaragami' was very often used for 'Mikyojo' by 'Bakufu' , and private letters by 'Bushi'.
After 'Kenmu-shinsei' (New Government by emperor Godaigo), owing to many 'Kanto-Bushi's staying permanently in Kyoto, the use of 'Monjo-Ryoshi's after the manner of Kamakura, was brought in Kyoto. On the other hand, 'Bushi's were affected by the manner of Kyoto, too. And those uses got to mix each other.
As for 'Kuge' (Nobels), temples and shrines, 'O-Taka-Danshi' and 'Ko-Taka-Danshi' were specialized from 'Taka-Danshi', and they must be conected with 'Otaka-Danshi' and 'Kotaka-Danshi' in Edo era. About 'Buke', 'Kamakuragami'('Onkudashibumigami')disappered out of the leading part of the writing paper for documents by 'Bakufu', and was substituted for 'Suibaragami'.
In the late Muromachi era, both 'Kuge' and 'Bushi's began to use 'Hikiawase' and 'Torinoko' as the writing paper for documents in 'Shosatsu' (letter) style. 'Taka-Danshi' led to the writing paper for 'Shuinjo' and 'Hanmotsu' by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. It is also said that 'Hoshogami'which appeared in this period, had originated from 'Hikiawase'.
By further examination into the existing 'Monjo-Ryoshi', we could trace the changes of them with the times. "The changes of the length and width, the ratio of the latter to the former, thickness, specific gravity, the numbers of 'Sunome', the space between finelines." We have conformed that common turning point between those was Muromachi era, moreover, we have made it clear that it was closely connected with the prevalence of 'Suibaragami'. Less