A Study of Early Japanese Emigrant Literature in America
Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C)
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||RITSUMEIKAN UNIVERSITY|
YAMAMOTO Iwao Ritsumeikan Univ., Law , Professor, 法学部, 教授 (30066675)
HIHARA Mie Ritsumeikan Univ., Social Sciences, Professor, 産業社会学部, 教授 (70181112)
|Project Period (FY)
1992 – 1993
Completed(Fiscal Year 1993)
|Budget Amount *help
¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥300,000)
Fiscal Year 1992 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
|Keywords||Japanese American Culture / Japanese American Literature / Okina Kyuin / Japanese Immigrant Society / Japanese Literature in America / 翁久允|
After we studied and classified the documents kept by Okina Kyuin, we made a list of his documents in cooperation with out collaborators. In addition, we were able to clarify the following points, after we studied the documents and The Complete Works of Okina Kyuin :
1. On the documents kept by Okina Kyuin :
(1) The documents were found to consist of 165 of his own manuscripts, 3,417 newspaper clippings, 4 volumes of his diaries, and 349 letters sent to him.
(2) His own manuscripts were mainly his short notes which contained the plots of his novels, essays, scripts and other works. His essays on the plays based on an immigrant society are important.
(3) Newspaper clippings are decisive, because we found many of them had not been included in The Complete Works of Okina Kyuin.
The clippings of the articles on labor and economic issues, Japan and U.S.relations, and politics are especially important.
(4) The diaries which we examined were written between 1909 and 1912.
(5) 48 of the letters were sent by Kawashima Tengai.
2. On Okina as a literary figure active in the early days of a Japanese immigrant sosiety :
(1) What Okina termed "literature in an emigrant society" underwent changes as time passed.
(2) Okina depicted women whom Nisei and Sansei would find it difficult to encounter.
(3) Okina's works and articles were significantly influenced by the turbulent social conditions of the time.
(4) After 1919, Okina expressed in his works social and political problems which a Japanese immigrant society faced.
(5) Various Japanese groups participated in forming a Seattle Japanese community and its economic development.
Research Output (5results)