Grant-in-Aid for International Scientific Research.
|Research Institution||Hirosaki University|
KITAMURA Koji Faculty of Humanities, Hirosaki University, Professor, 人文学部, 教授 (20161490)
ワンディバ シミュ ナイロビ大学, アフリカ研究所, 所長
作道 信介 弘前大学, 人文学部, 助教授 (50187077)
太田 至 京都大学, アフリカ地域研究センター, 助教授 (60191938)
河合 香吏 京都大学, アフリカ地域研究センター(日本学術振興会), 研究員(特別研究員)
KAWAI Kaori The Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University, Research (Japan Society f
SAKUMICHI Shinsuke Faculty of Humanities, Hirosaki University, Associate Professor
OTA Itaru The Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University, Associate Professor
|Project Fiscal Year
1993 – 1995
Completed(Fiscal Year 1995)
|Budget Amount *help
¥19,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥19,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥6,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥6,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥7,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥7,000,000)
|Keywords||Turkana / Pastoralist / Modernization / Social change / Food aid / Refugee camp / School education / Epistemology / トゥルカナ / 牧畜民 / 近代化 / 社会変容 / 食料援助 / 難民キャンプ / 学校教育 / 認識論 / 開発援助 / マーケット / ライフ・コース|
Two aspects of social changes in Turkana life were shown as follows. One is the visible change of Turkana life that includes the residential pattern, namadic movement pattern, diversification of economic activities and expansion of market economy.The other is the invisible but more important changes of cognitive attitudes that cover even their world view. Two events, the continuous drought since 1981 and the setting of UN refugee camp near Kakuma, should be referred as the background of both changes.
1.Changes of Turkana life : The settlement near Kakuma, the orientation toward the modern commodities of outer areas, the pervasion of monetary economy.
The drought forced Turkana people to be near town where the food supply of foreign NGO done. As a result Turkana people came to settle near urban area, getting involved in the variety of trading activities that the outer merchants unfold in Kakuma town and camp market.
UN camp and refugees formed a new market to activate the local economy. Many outer merchants flowed into this area. Turkana people need the money to keep their life and gathered around Kakuma to sell their livestock that they have never done except exchange among Turkanas. UN camp promoted this trend.
2.Change in the attitude toward education and the value system
Changes in the attitude toward education.
The education in Kenya has the dormitory system. The pervasion of education means to make children tear off from the traditional life in the homestead. Now a day the number of such young people that stay without job after school has rapidly increased.
Cognition of outer world
Through Conflict and interaction with UN refugees and camp administrative, they came to know that there strictly existed other value that they could not manage any way.
Changes in the attitude toward illness.
Many folk healers came from the other areas to catch the clients. New understanding of illness, which the substantial cause must be found and removed for healing, is getting popular.