Grant-in-Aid for international Scientific Research
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||KYUSHU UNIVERSITY|
TOH Yoshihiro Kyushu Univ.Fac.of Sci., Prof., 理学部, 教授 (60037265)
MIZUTANI Akiko Kyushu Univ.Fac.of Sci., Research Associate, 理学部, 助手 (80231611)
MADDESS Teddy l. Australia National Univ.Inst.for Biol., Researcher, 生物学, 研究員
MIZUNAMI Makoto Hokkaido Univ.Res.Inst.for Electronic, Associate Prof., 電子科学研究所, 助教授 (30174030)
ICHIKAWA Toshio Kyushu Univ.Fac.of Sci., Associate Prof., 理学部, 助教授 (50136420)
YOKOHARI Fumio Fukuoka Univ.Fac.of Sci., Prof., 理学部, 教授 (20117287)
YAMASHITA Shigeki The Univ.of Kyushu Institute Technology, Prof., 一般教育, 教授 (30091250)
SHAW Stephen r. Dalhousie Univ.Inst.for Neurosci., Prof., 神経科学部, 教授
MEINERTZHAGE イアン ダルハウジー大学, 神経科学部, 教授
STRAUSFELD N アリゾナ大学, 神経生物学部, 教授
STRAUSFELD Nicholusj. The Univ.of Arizona Div.of Neurobiol., Prof.
MEINERTZHAGEN Ian a. Dalhousie Univ.Inst.for Neurosci., Prof.
三村 珪一 長崎大学, 教養部, 教授 (20039754)
MADDESS T.L. オーストラリア国立大学, 視覚研究センター, 研究員
MEINERTZHAGE I.A. ダルハウジー大学, 神経科学, 教授
|Project Period (FY)
1993 – 1994
Completed(Fiscal Year 1994)
|Budget Amount *help
¥10,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥5,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥5,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,000,000)
|Keywords||Learning Memory / Synaptic Plasticity / Insect Brain / Habituation / Neural Plasticity / Optic Lobe / Pattern Recognition / Vision|
Structure of the brain has been examined in four species of insects : adults and larvae of blowflies Phormia regina Meigen, adult cockroaches Periplaneta americana, worker honeybees Apis mellifera, and adults and larvae of tiger beetles Cicindela chinensis.
The optic lobe of the compound eye consists of three neuropils : lamina, medulla and lobula neuropils : The lamina and medulla neuropils are organized retinotopically, whereas lobula neuropil is organized to integrate such retinotopic visual information for abstract specific visual information. The optic lobe of the tiger beetle larva consists of two neuropil regions : retinotopic lamina region and integrative medulla region. The basic design of optic neuropil appears to be genetically determined, because the neuropil structure is normally differentiated in the larval and pupal lifves under constant dark. But, some minute changes occurred in the fly optic neuropil structure reared under light-deprived condition : axons of retinal int
erneurons decreased. Such changes were statistically significant, and may be related to plastic nature of the neuropil structure.
Terminations of sensory interneurons of various modalities including afferent axons of the optic neuropil and output axons of olfactory lobe have been examined in the brain of the four species. Those sensory interneurons terminate in the mushroom body in the protocerebrum suggesting multimodal sensory integration there. The mushroom body also appears to play an primary role for initiation of voluntary behavior, because some neurons fire prior initiation of locomotion.
Plastic changes of behavior were observed in locomotion of cockroaches triggered by air puffs, predatory and escape responses of tiger beetle larva and visual behavior of the worker honeybees. Such changes must be rooted in plastic changes of neural networks, which comprise morphological and physiological basis of higher neural function such as memory and learning. In this research program neural activities concerning to such higher function were recorded in cockroach brain. In the cockroach that was trained to learn some visual cue to avoid an uncomfortable place, the neurons exclusively responding to such visual cues were found.
These results may be physiological counterpart of learning and are suggestive plastic nature of the insect brain for higher neural function. Less