KIRTIBUTR Nit Faculty of Agriculture Kasetsart University, Thailand, Associate Professor, カセサート大学, 助教授
MYLES Timothy g. Faculty of Forestry, University of Tronoto, Canada, Associate Professor, Toronto大学, 助教授
BURNS Thomas p. Environmental Compliance Group, USA,Scientist, OakRidge国立研, 研究員
BIGNELL David e. Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London, UK.Associate Professor, London大学, 教授
SLAYTOR M. 豪, Sydney大学, 助教授
HOLT Jhon 豪, CSIRO, 主任教授
SUGIMOTO Atsuko Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University Lecturer, 生態学研究センター, 助手 (50235892)
HIGASHI Masahiko Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University Professor, 生態学研究センター, 教授 (40183917)
TAKEDA Hiroshi Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University Assocaite Professor, 農学部, 助教授 (60109048)
YAMAMURA Norio Saga Medical School, Associate Professor, 助教授 (70124815)
YAMAOKA Ryohei Kyoto Institute of Technology, Associate Professor, 繊維学, 教授 (00111948)
YAMAOKA Ikuo Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, Professor, 理学部, 教授 (30034705)
MATSUMOTO Tadao College of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Professor, 教養学部, 教授 (90106609)
SLAYTOR Michael Department of Biochemistry, The University of Sydney, Australia, Associate Profe
HOLT John a. Senior Scientist CSIRO,Division of Soils, Australia
WOOD T.G. 英, NRI, 主任研究員
VIJARSORN P. タイ国, 国土開発局, 主任研究員
MYLES T.G. カナダ, Toronto大学, 助教授
BURNS T.P. 米, Oak Ridge国立研究所, 研究員
HOLT J. 豪, CSIRO, 主任教授
|Budget Amount *help
¥10,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥5,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥5,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,000,000)
The termites, who have symbiotic relationship with bacteria, protozoa and fungi, have succeeded in utilizing cell-wall component of dead plants, which contains cellulose, the most abundant organic matter on the earth, but contains only a little nitrogen.
The present international cooperative research project intends to clarify the "Termite-Symbionts System" with special reference to (1) cellulose decomposition process and nitogen acquisition, (2) environmental factors and ecological traits of termites promoting the macroevolution in termites from lower to higher termites, and (3) the role of termites in nitrogen flow of terrestrial ecosystems in Thailand, Australia and Japan. Most important questions and answers are as follows.
1) Why are xylophagous termites able to subsist on a diet containing very little nitrogen? Thirty to fifty percent of nitrogen of bodies of a xylophagous termite (Neotermes koshunensis, Kalotermitidae) come from atmospheric nitrogen.
2) Who produce cellulases? In lower termites (Reticulitermes speratus) cellulases are produced by protozoa (in hind gut) and by themselves (in salivary gland and midgut), while in higher termites cellulases are produced by themselves (in midgut).
3) Who decompose hemicellulose? In a lower termite (Reticulitermes speratus), enzymes to decompose hemicellulose are produced by protozoa and termites themselves.
4) What kind of factors have promoted the macroevolution in termites? Based on comparative studies on biology of termites in reinforests and adjacent Eucalyptus savanna in Australia, 'Lignin cover hypothesis' was proposed, suggesting the importance of climatic change in Cretaceous period (moist to dry) as well as the change in nest site and food of termites.