|Budget Amount *help
¥4,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥3,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,500,000)
The following are distinctive features of Japanese Hokkaido Dialect of Ainu language speakers.
(1) The interferences from their mother tongue Ainu language are observed especially on phonetic. Examples : (1) to lengthen the first sound of a word, (2) resemblance between "o"-vowel and "u"-vowel, (3) difficulty of assimilation of continuing two vowels, (4) similitudes of "sa, si, su, se, so" and "sha, shi, shu, she, sho", (5) no seperation or remarkable mixture between voiceless sounds and voiced sounds, (6) to pronouncing "yo-on" like "choku-on", (7) to make level intonation. On grammar, the interferences are seen in the following cases : (8) usage of particles "ni" "sika" and others. (9) to confuse intransitive verbs and transitive verbs, (10) Expression of the end of a sentence. On vocabulary, there are some borrowing words from Ainu language, but almost not interferences.
(2) Those Japanese which Ainu language speakers acquired are rather early Hokkaido Dailect in chiefly Meiji, Taisho and still more Showa, prewar era. After that the language standardization went on so fast in the Showa 30s. The Dialect based on Japanese Tohoku Dilect is unique one which immigrants from all over the Japan brought into Hokkaido and mixed up. It is important that their Japanese reflect Japanese Dialects spoken by their Japanese immigrant neighbors just like Mrs. Orita has features of Awaji Island Dialect in Hyogo Prefecture.
(3) In the Japanese Hokkaido Dialect of Ainu language speakers, the common characteristic mentioned above are observed. However, their individual variations are great, too. The differences may arise from some causes, such as social surroundings or the time of learning Japanese, their thinking about Ainu language and culture.