SHIONO Keishi Associate Prof.Department of Civil Engineering, Nagaoka National College of Tech, 環境都市工学科, 助教授 (30128574)
MATSUDA Iware Prof.Faculty of Economics, Kanto Gakuin Univ., 経済学部, 教授 (60087145)
KOSAKA Shunkichi Research Assoc.Facurity of Technology, ditto, 工学部, 助手 (60094265)
NAKABAYASHI Itsuki Prof.ditto, 都市研究所, 教授 (80094275)
|Budget Amount *help
¥5,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥1,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥1,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,000,000)
The main points clarified by this research on vulnerability of urban earthquake disasters in some major cities in several countries including Japan are as follows.
(1) The concentration of population and economic activity in major cities is more marked in developing regions than in developed countries. Moreover, densey concentrated buildings and facilities are markedly more vulnerable than those in developed countries in terms of "earthquake resistance efficienty". As a result, cities in developing regions face a heavily concentrated risk of "damage to buildings" caused by earthquake activity. It is this fact that determines the content and basic direction of preventive measures and emergency action after an earthquake, designed to create urban areas that can withstand disasters. In particular, in contrast to Japan, where countermeasures against simultaneous multiple outplans, the basic direction of earthquake counterneasure plans in many developing regions is "how to formulate disaster
prevention countermeasure plans to withstand simultaneous multiple collapses of buildings".
(2) On the basis of disaster data collected from an existing earthquake catalog, we derived an empirical equation to correlate the per capita GNP of affected country with the damage amount in an earthquake normalized by the number of death. The equation was applied to examine the relationship between per capita GNP and the rate of damage to an affected country's GNP.The result suggested relative economic vulnerability to earthquake in developing coutries having threshold economy.
(3) We have attempted to oomprehend the key factors that determined the disaster status of the city of Kobe as revealed by the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earhtquake, and compared them with those of other major Japanese cities. We have extracted indices of characteristics for each city in Japan to enable us to evaluate each city's the vulnerablity against earthquakes based on a primary component analysis. As a result, we have found that the city of Kobe before the Great Hnshin-Awaji Earthquake was a typical major Japanese city, and that many major Japanese cities were weaker than Kobe. Therefore, implementation of earthquake-proof countermeasures in those cities is now an urgent requirment. For example, we have found that the cities of Ichikawa, Kawasaki, Yokohama, Chiba, Osaka, Fukuoka, and Sendai are weaker than the city of Kobe.
(4) We developed a quantitative earthquake disaster valnerability assessment of cities and carried out a comparative study on some cities. Thus, the cities we selected in our study (3) are merely an example, and the methodology that we developed is intended to be applicable to any city of any size and location worldwide. Less