|Budget Amount *help
¥2,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥1,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,600,000)
The intensive agricultural production in the European Community countries since 1960s caused ground water pollution, loss of biological diversity, erosion of fields and simplification of landscape, which are called as the negative external effects. An environmental policy was required in agriculture : the agricultural-environmental policy.
Three programs of Province Baden-Wuerttemberg in Germany, namely (1) "Biotop-Vernetzung" Program (1991-), (2) "Wasserpfenning" Program (1988-) and (3) "MEKA" (Marktentlastungs- und Kulturlandschaftsausgleich)" Program (1992-) go ahead of the regular formation of agricultural-environmental policy by the Reform of Common Agricultural Policy of the European Community in 1992.
They are essentially the programs of extensification of agricultural production : the reduction of input of agricultural production factors per hectare such as manure and fertilizer, plant protection products and livestocks, and practices of diversified resource-conserving crop rotat
ions. The Biotop-Vernetzung Program (biotope networking program) aims to create biotope (wildlife habitat) on the edges of fields and grasslands by means of reduction of input of manure and fertilizer and plant protection products, or by means of hedging a field. The Wasserpfenning Program (water pollution protecting program) aims to improve the ground water quality by means of restriction of manure and fertilizer and plant protection products on the fields and grasslands in the water pollution protection areas. The MEKA Program (over-production discouraging and landscape improving program) aims to promote an environmentally-compatible use of fields and grasslands in a holistic way by agricultural practices that enhance soil and water quality, protect wet anddry lands, improve soil, water, and energy conservation, and restore wildlife habitat.
Various negative external effects of intensive agricultural production, such as ground water pollution, decrease of biological diversity, erosion of fields and simplification of landscape could be diminished by the extensification practices of these programs. If the extensification in the framework of agricultural-environmental policy causes a loss in income, farmers will be compensated for it with the direct payments by the government. Less