FUJIMOTO Kenichi Women's University, School of human life and environmental science, lecturer, 生活環境学部, 講師 (00248121)
KADONO Yukihiro Women's University, School of human life and environmental science, Associate pr, 生活環境学部, 助教授 (90248120)
HIRAMATI Kozo Mukogawa Women's University, School of human life and environmental science, pro, 生活環境学部, 教授 (70026293)
|Budget Amount *help
¥1,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,800,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥900,000)
Fiscal Year 1993 : ¥900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥900,000)
Japanese people have had symposia all through their history from the ancient days to the moderntimes. "Utage" , symposium in Japanese, took place in the time of "Hare", which means "non-every-day" ofannual events celebrated by all the classes. The symposium in the Hare times has experiencedbig changes not only in the enrichment of dishes served but in the place where UTage was had. It traditionally took place at home or in the house posessed by thcommunity, Kaisho. The place werechanged to restaurants and/or inns in the middle of Edo a era. since then the externalization of syposium has widely achieved in Japan.
Hospital is an externalized place of hospitality from the point of view of the function of home. When modern hospitals were planted in Japan, they were considered as something like factory where sick or injured workers were mended and sent back to the production site. In 1960s when high economic growth and high level of shocial security system were achived, people started to go
to hospitals without hesitation and realized that the hospitals lacked amenity as accomodation. On the requirement by the patients, hospitals newly built tend to offer the mcozy and comfortable environment as well as good food. The phenomenon is sometimes said as "hotelization of hospital".
The history of modern Japanese hotel began at the end of Edo era. At first, small hotels for foreigners who were staying in Japan on business were built at "Kyoryuu-chi" which meant the foreigners' residential area in Yokohama, Kobe and other porttowns. At the beginning of Meiji era, Japan government tried to built a hotel for the purpose of treating foreign guests well. Thus, hotel is regarded as a reception house for foreigners untill the end of World Wor II.but nowadays, many hotels are used by Japanese middle class people. They use hotels not only for staying overnight, but also for wedding celemony, small meeting, lunch, shopping and so on. Hotel have had complex function and it has been recognized as an externalized place of home.
The externalization of domestic functions is supposed to concerned with rapid urbanization in Japan. Especially, food functions of family, for example, cooking, eating, drinking, washing, and communicating are externalized to the domain of business sectors in city. Of course, distinctions of rural-urban life-styles are going to disappear, and be unified into the mono-culture of suburban satellite cities.
In the process of the externalization of food function in family, two problematical arguments are discussed among researchers.
(1) Time variation : FF (fast food shop), FR (family restaurant), and CSC (coffee stand chain) are open during 24 hours, and are serving menu variations time by time, e.g.Japanesque and chinoise "SET" menu in early morning Easy-going "PUB" menu (beer and delica) in evening time.
(2) Space (OccaSion) Variation : The results of externalization of food are combined to the development of portable and personal package food (called "MiDdle-Food (Naka-shoku)" in comparison with "Outer-food" and "Inner-Food"). This "Naka-shoku" is not specified in eating location. Less