Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research.
|Research Institution||Tokyo Institute of Technology|
FUKUDA Atsuo Tokyo Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Professor, 工学部, 教授 (10013484)
TAKANSHI Yoichi Tokyo Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Research Associate, 工学部, 助手 (80251619)
ISHIKAWA Ken Tokyo Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Associate Professor, 工学部, 助教授 (10176159)
TAKEZOE Hideo Tokyo Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Professor, 工学部, 教授 (10108194)
|Project Fiscal Year
1994 – 1996
Completed(Fiscal Year 1996)
|Budget Amount *help
¥190,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥190,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥16,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥16,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥38,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥38,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥136,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥136,000,000)
|Keywords||liquid crystal / antiferroelectricity / thresholdless antiferroelectricity / IR spectroscopy / NMR / CD spectroscopy / V-shaped switching / display / 液晶 / 反強誘電性 / 無閾反強誘電性 / 赤外分光 / CD分光 / V字型スイッチング / ディスプレイ / 反強誘電性液晶 / マラン分光 / 円偏光2色性(CD)分光 / 光カー効果 / 悪魔の階段 / ラマン分光 / キラルスメクティックCα相 / キラルスメクティックIA相 / キラルスメクティックCA相|
We have studied antiferroelectricity in liquid crystals from various viewpoints and established the P_X model ; the hindered rotational motion of molecules about their long axs produces spontaneous polarizations parallel to the tilt plane near smectic layr boundaries and stabilizes the antiferroelectric SC_A^<**> phase. Based on the P_X model, we have analyzed the frustration between ferro- and antiferro-electricity, introduced a novel concept, thresholdless antiferroelectricity (TLAF), and explained the V-shaped switching observed in a novel, apparently antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixture and usable in liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with active matrix electrodes. Details are :
1) Higher-order X-ray Bragg peaks indicated a correlation between the stable antiferroelectricity and higher smectic-layr order.
2) Spectroscopy clarified the following four facts :
(1) Polarized Raman confirmed the molecular arrangements in SC^<**> and SC_A^<**>.
(2) NMR and polarized IR (PIR) verified the ben
t structure, the precessional motion and the biaxiality around the average chain axs of chiral alkyl chains in liquid crystal phases.
(3) PIR proved the hindrance of molecular rotational motion about their long axs and a difference in the hindered direction between SC^<**> and SC_A^<**>, assigning the threshold of the triastable switching to the barrier between the SC^<**> and SC_A^<**> hindered directions and suggesting the P_X model.
(4) PIR verified the chiral alkyl chain precessional motion, and NMR indicted its collective character.
3) The optical Kerr effect with 130 fs pump pulses dose not show any critical slowing down, indicating no coupling between the laser-induced molecular reorientation with tau-10^<11>s and the polarization.
4) Optical microscope observation of the subphases in free-standing films under temperature gradients supported Yamashita's ANNNI+J_3 model.
5) Electro-optical observation of an apparently antiferroelectric liquid crystall mixture showed the V-shaped switching, resulting in the TLAF based on the randomization and Langevin type alignment of director tilting from layr to layr.
6) PIR and NMR showed that the P_X model also holds in SI_A^<**>.
7) CD spectroscopy proved the dynamical character of the SC_<alpha> helicoidal structure, supporting a speculation of SC_<alpha> characterized by thermally excited C-director disclinations.
8) Dimer molecules with chiral units connected with polymethlene chain indicated the importance of dipole-dipole interaction in SC_A^<**>.
9) A 5 T superconducting magnet simplified the fabrication of liquid crystal cells, furthering to study the aligning mechanism and the defect structure. Less