Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)
|Research Institution||KYOTO UNIVERSITY|
石田 祐三郎 京都大学, 農学部, 教授 (20026488)
UCHIDA Aritsune Kyoto Univ., Fac.Agriculture, Professor, 農学部, 教授 (50027190)
IMAI Ichiro Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Agriculture, Associate Professor, 農学研究科, 助教授 (80271013)
FUKAMI Kimio Kochi Univ., Fac.Agriculture, Associate Professor, 農学部, 助教授 (30181241)
芝 恒男 水産大学校, 製造学科, 助教授
SAKATA Taizo Kagoshima Univ., Fac., Fisheries, Professor, 水産学部, 教授 (10041724)
SUGAWARA Isao Mie Univ., Fac.Biosresources, Professor, 生物資源学部, 教授 (80024826)
SHIBA Tsuneo National Fishries Univ., Dept.Food Science and Technology, Associate Professor
|Project Fiscal Year
1994 – 1996
Completed(Fiscal Year 1996)
|Budget Amount *help
¥18,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥18,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥4,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥6,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥8,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥8,500,000)
|Keywords||algicidalbacteria / redtide algae / Heterosigma akashiwo / Gymnodinium mikimotoi / host specificity / Cytophaga / Alteromonas / molecular taxonomy / 殺藻細菌 / 赤潮原因藻 / Heterosigma skashiwo / 宿主特異性 / 分子分類 / 赤潮 / Heterosigmaakashiwo / RFLP / DNA / algicide / red tide / phytoplankton / killer bacteria / 16SrRNA|
We enumerated the microorganisms which killed the noxious red tide phytoplankton Heterosigma ak ashiwo (raphidophyceae) and Gymnodinium mikimotoi, (dinophyceae)Ha during their blooms which occurred in Hiroshima Bay and Uranouchi Bay or Tanabe Bay, Japan, in 1995 and 1996, using the MPN method.
At every sampling site in Hiroshima Bay in both years, the rapid in crease of the algicidal microorganisms in the seawater fractions less than 0.8mm was observed at the termination period of the blooms. Because the seawater fraction less than 0.2mm fluctuated poorly reloted to the extinction of H.ak ashiwo blooms, the algicidal bacteria may play the leading part in the temination of the bloom. We could isolate many strains of H.ak ashiwo-killing bacteria (HAKB) during the blooms. The number of algicidal bacteria against Chattonella antiqua were one or two order of magnitude lower than that of HAKB.Therefore it is suggested that the population dynamics of algicidal bacteria may have a close relatio
nship to the blooms of the phytoplankton. In marine ecosystem, algicidal bacteria against specific phytoplankton seem to regulate the change of structure of phytoplankton communities.
Several strains of the marine bacteria which killed G.mikimotoiwere isolated during the occurrence of the huge red tide of G.mikimotoi in Tanabe Bay. Among them the strains belonged to the genus Vibrio, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas-Alteromonas. The fact that all of them grew in filtered natural seawater without any nutrient supplements suggested that the killing bacteria are ubiquitous in seawter and are related to the occurrence of G.mikimotoi opportunistically. Most of the killing bacteria did not affect the growth of three marine diatoms, Skeletonema costatum, Ditylum brightwelli and Thalassiosira sp., and some of them did not affect the growth of the Alexandrium catenella.
A bacterium, Flavobacterium sp.5N-3, obtained from sawater after the disappearance of a noxious G.mikimotoired tide in Uranouchi Bay showed a drastic algicidal effect on this species in particular, while it had no effects on other red tide plankton of Skeletonem costatum, Heterosigma akashiwo, and Chattonella anitiqua.
These results suggest that bacteria with species-specific inhibitory effects play an importnat role on the succession of phytoplankton community and algalblooming could be prevented by using such microbes as a "microbial pesticide".
近藤は、徳島沿岸からA. tamarenseを殺藻する細菌を多数分離し、それらがFlavobacterium, Moraxella, Pseudomonas-Alteromonas属とかなり多岐に分類されることを明らかにした。