|Budget Amount *help
¥5,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥400,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥3,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥2,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,100,000)
The purpose of this study was to research on changes of value systems in post-war Japanese society. It has often been pointed out the change of value system from collectivity-orientation to self-orientation. However, I thought that the change was not such a simple and linear one but a polarization of self-orientation that is an appearance of individualism and universalism. Compared with collectivism, both individualism and universalism are same in the point that personal needs or values are more important than traditional social roles or norms. But the former is the idea that self-orientation, especially self-orientation to his or hew own pleasure takes precedence of other things, on the other hand, the latter is the idea that thinking of others' needs and vales, and adjusting mutually, as a whole, better situation is oriented. In this case, others are not restricted as members of one group or one society. They include people beyond borders of space and time. In this sense, the latter idea can be called universalism.
To verify this thought on value change, I planed a social survey and conducted it in 1996,1997. The results show the existence of individualism but we cannot confirm the existence of universalism. But we can see a sign of universalism through recent voluntary activities and networking. It will take more time till universalism appear as a result of social survey.