|Budget Amount *help
¥1,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥1,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,400,000)
Sociologiy, originated mainly philosophy and psychology has developed into an independent discipline unique in the related fieldthrough E.Durkheim's arduous efforts. But philosophy and psychology still continue to criticize sociology as in the past. E.ddurkheim is the first sociologist to criticize `pragmatism' in a systematic way. He took up many and various notions of pragmatism and severely criticized them. The list of pragmatic notions or theories which E.Durkheim argued against is quite extensive, ranging form such notions as `Relation of Individual to society, ' `Epiphenomenalism, ' `Truth, ' `Moral virtue-to those of `Religion, ' `Cogniton, ' `Logical Utilitanism, ' `Construction of Knowledge.'
Of all the pragmatic philosophers, W.James was an especial target of Durkheim's eriticism because James was strongly supported by not a few of the French thinkers, above all by H.Bergson. In those days, the world of French thoughts was divided into two camps, one led by Durkheim himsel, the other by Berson. Durkheim fineing pragmatism a dangerous enemy to the traditional French rationalism, and thinking pragmatism and Bergson's philosophy to be almost Kith and Kin, attacked both of them, in a sweeping way. But it must be admitted that there are some common aspects as well as differences both in Durkheim's sociology and in `pragmatic' thought in general. These common aspects together with differences need a closer reexamination of Durkheim's sociology itself embodied in his `criticism of pragmatism.'