|Budget Amount *help
¥2,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥1,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1994 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Following are the results of the research carried out from 1994 to 1995.
1.Localization of official documents pertaining to architecture of the Qing Dynasty that can be found in Japan, and compilation of an inventory of the various libraries' and archives' holdings. Of the places surveyed, the archives of Institute of Oriental Culture in Tokyo (Toyo Bunka Kenkyusyo) was found both to contain the greatest and most systematically organized collection of relevant material. Moreover, the National Diet Library was also found to hold a fairly large collection of material.
2.Compilation of an inventory of the official documents pertaining to Qing Dynasty architecture found in the Institute of Oriental Culture, and classification of the documents with regard to their history, quantity, contents etc.
This collection was originally bought and brought over from China by the Japanese architect Araki Seizo who resided in Beijing 1910-33, and after his death acquired by Toho Bunka Gakuin (presently the
Institute of Oriental Culture) with the help of the Japanese historian of Chinese architecture Takeshima Takuichi. The collection consists of 416 books, 20 boxes containing written documents, and 50 rolls of architectural drawings, and contain architectural desings, construction calculations and budgets, as well as construction 'diaries' pertaining to all the major Qing construction projects, including Tientan (Temple of Heaven), Huiling (tomb of Emperor Dong-zhi), the Xiling tombs, and Beihai (Winter Palace).
3.Through an analysis of the above documents, clarification of the entire design and building processes of the Qing Dynasty as well as identification of characteristcs features was made possible.
The building procedures were as follows : Upon the order of the Emperor, the selected lot would be measured, a paper model ('tanyang') made, plans, referred to as 'dibanyang' drawn, and a text, 'zoufa quince' written. A mission would be sent to inspect the work. either during construction or after its completion. For the Imperial palaces and gardens, the Emperor himself would at times make preliminary sketches. The construction would be undertaken by private construction companies, referred to as 'muchang'.