Grant-in-Aid for International Scientific Research.
|Research Institution||KYOTO UNIVERSITY|
TANAKA Jiro Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Professor, 大学院・人間・環境学研究科, 教授 (30027495)
ONO Hitomi Faculty of Foreign Languages, Reitaku University, Lecturer, 外国語学部, 講師 (70245273)
早木 薫 日本学術振興会, 特別研究員
NAKAGAWA Hiroshi Faculty of Foreign Studies, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Lecturer, 外国語学部, 講師 (70227750)
池谷 和信 国立民族学博物館, 第一研究部, 助手 (10211723)
OSAKI Masakazu Institute of Nature and Environmental Sciences, Himeji Institute of Technology,, 自然環境科学研究所, 講師 (40254453)
早木 仁成 神戸学院大学, 人文学部, 助教授 (60228559)
太田 至 京都大学, 大学院人間・環境学研究科, 助教授 (60191938)
野中 健一 三重大学, 人文学部, 助教授 (20241284)
SUGAWARA Kazuyoshi Faculty of Integrated Human Studies, Kyoto University, Professor, 総合人間学部, 教授 (80133685)
ビーゼリー メガン ニヤエ, ニヤエ・開発基金, 所長
BIESELE Megan Nyae Nyae Development Foundation, Director
|Project Fiscal Year
1995 – 1997
Completed(Fiscal Year 1997)
|Budget Amount *help
¥38,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥38,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥12,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥12,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥12,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥12,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥12,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥12,700,000)
|Keywords||Kalahari Desert / ecotone / ethno-diversity / San / Botswana / Namibia / anthropology / utilizationof environment / カラハリ砂漠 / 植生移行帯 / 民族多様生 / サン / ボツワナ / ナミビア / 人類学 / 環境利用 / 民族多様性|
1. By analyzing the life history of the San, the transition of livelihood after the settlement, i.e, the contract work of cultivation and the trust of livestock, and the collection of materials related to the history of contacts among | Gui- || Gana and neighboring languages, interactions and dynamics of symbiosis between San hunter-gatherers and Bantu agro-pastoralists were elucidated.
2. By collecting and analyzing the life history of the San elder men, the details of past life, such as hunting activity, extra-marital sexual relationship, male initiation ritual, ideology concerning witchcraft and sorcery imported from Bantu agro-pastoralists, were reconstructed and elucidated.
3. Utilization of insects as food and material culture was investigated, and the qualitative importance of insects especially as food in San dietary life was pointed out. Furthermore, it was clarified how the minute cognition of animal figure and behavior closely correlated with such symbolic interpretation of na
ture as foresight, mythical origin of habit and morphology.
4. Previous reports on phonological and grammatical structures and lexicon in | Gui and || Gana were elaborated, and a linguistically adequate orthography of | Gui and || Gana which enable us to record vernacular names accurately was proposed.
5. By analyzing demographic data of past 30 years, population dynamics of the San were elucidated.
6. By comparative analysis of ritual systems of the San and the Kgalagadi, it was clarified that the factors concerning witchcraft and sorcery were hardly accompanied when San ritual ceremonies were influenced by the Kgalagadi.
7. Language and motor development and socialization of San children were elucidated in relation to the "modernization" problems, such as the decline of hunting-gathering, deterioration of egalitarianism and introduction of school education etc.
8. In the ecotone surrounding the Kalahari Desert, the importance of the mopane tree of family Caesalpiniaceae was stressed not only as material culture, but also as one playing a symbolic role in religious rituals. Furthermore, it was clarified that the conflicts among ethnic groups for land right might often occur in relation to the problem of ethnic identity and even affect profoundly a political issue in state level such as general election.
9. The historical event of San migration initiated by the Botswana government occurred in 1997. Analysis and elucidation of the problems accompanied by this migration were striven and completed partly, leaving a number of subjects as future problem. Less