Grant-in-Aid for International Scientific Research.
|Section||Joint Research .|
|Research Institution||Tokyo Medical & Dental Univ.|
YMAGAMI Akira Tokyo Medical & Dental Univ., Medical Research Institute, Prof., 難治疾患研究所, 教授 (60107315)
OKADA Takayuki Tokyo Medical & Dental Univ., Medical Research Institute, Assist., 難治疾患研究所, 助手 (40282769)
HIRSCHEI Jos Department of Criminal Justice. Universi, Prof.
FRIDAY Paul Department of Criminal Justice. Universi, Chair.
KONISHI Takako Tokyo Medical & Dental Univ., Medical Research Institute, Assoc.Prof., 難治疾患研究所, 助教授 (30251557)
DUSSICH John P. Tokiwa University, College of Applied International Studies, Prof., 国際学部, 教授 (00285743)
FRIDAY P.C. ノースカロライナ大学, 刑事司法部, 教授
FRIDAY P.C ノースカロライナ大学, 刑事司法部, 教授
BOKU Mitsunori Tokyo Med.Dent.Univ., Faculty of Meducine, Assistnt, 医学部, 助手 (90282772)
FRIDAY Paul C. Univ.of North Carolina, Dept.of Criminal Justice, Prof.
|Project Fiscal Year
1995 – 1997
Completed(Fiscal Year 1997)
|Budget Amount *help
¥10,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥3,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥3,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥2,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,900,000)
|Keywords||cross cultural comparison / Japan / USA / violent crimes / fear of crime / aggression / weapons / gun control / 日米比較 / 暴力 / 犯罪 / 被害 / 攻撃 / 銃器 / 比較文化 / 被害者 / 被害化 / 銃器規制 / 警察官 / 文化 / 銃 / 警察 / 銃規則 / 被害者援助|
The research has been conducted to examine the various aspects of the violent crimes in Japan and the U.S., especially of the victimization from the use of weapons as guns (occurrence frequency, cognition, and behavior) and of using the violence and the weapons as a means of defense. The questionnaire contained hypothetical situations to examine the different responses of the Japanese and the Americans. The research was conducted on February, 1996.5000 adult citizens in Japan and the U.S.were randomly selected. The results were the following ;
1) THE EXPERIENCE,COGNITION,AND THE EMOTION OF THE VIOLENT VICTIMIZATION
1. In the U.S., the proportion of the reported victimization from the violent crimes was about twice as many as the proportion in Japan.
2. Violent victimization that typically reported in the U.S.were serious as the robbery and the rape, though the ones typically reported in Japan mainly contained relatively slight violence and the school day experiences between the students.
. The fear to become real victims were higher in the U.S.than in Japan, as the fear to crimes and the impression that atrocious crimes were increasing were higher in Japan than in the U.S.
2) THE TYPICAL RESPONSE TO THE VIOLENT VICTIMIZATION
A.The Typical Response Tendency of the Americans
1. Offensive response were reported only when the danger was high. In high danger, the use of guns were approved (the extreme differentiation tendency of the reactions). Offensive responses were triggered especially by the bodily touch, the property infringe, and the illegal home entry.
2. There were racial and age differences in the offensive response tendency ; offensive responses were higher in white than in black, and lower in youth than seniors.
B.The Typical Response Tendency of the Japanese
1. Offensive responses were reported in various ways regardless of the extent of the danger (e.g., retort), but the use of wepons were strongly suppressed. There were age difference in offensive response tendency, as it was higher in youth than seniors.
3) THE USE OF WEAPONS AND GUNS
1. In the U.S., possession of guns was approved and many were possessing some kind of wepons in actual as a means of defense. The use of guns by officers was also approved without hesitation depending on the danger.
2. In Japan, less were possessing weapons and there were strong tendency that the use of weapons were hesitated to be affirmed. even in the dangerous situation.
The result is expected to contribute to deepen the mutual understanding of Japan and the U.S.by examining the differences of the cognition and the behavior and culture in both countries, and to be useful for the discussion of the gun control. Less