Grant-in-Aid for International Scientific Research.
|Section||Joint Research .|
|Research Institution||University of Tokyo|
SHIMADA Masakazu Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Associate Professor, 大学院・総合文化研究科, 助教授 (40178950)
HASSELL M.P インペリアル, カレッジ 生物学科, 主任教授
GODFRAY H.C. インペリアル, カレッジ・生物学科, 教授
巖佐 庸 九州大学, 理学部, 教授 (70176535)
HASSELL M.P. Department of Biology, Imperial College, Professor, カレッジ・生物学科, 主任教授
GODFRAY H.C.J. Department of Biology, Imperial College, Professor
IWASA You Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Professor
|Project Fiscal Year
1995 – 1996
Completed(Fiscal Year 1996)
|Budget Amount *help
¥6,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥2,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥3,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,300,000)
|Keywords||host / parasite / population dynamics / system persistence / coevolution / temporal structure / spatial structure / host-parasite community / niche separation / 寄主 / 寄生者 / 個体群動態 / 系の持続性 / 共進化 / 時間構造 / 空間構造 / 寄主-寄生者群集 / 宿主 / ダイナミクスの持続性 / 齢構成 / 病毒性 / 群集構造 / 相互作用ネットワーク|
M.Shimada studied dynamical properties of 1 host-2parasitoid experimental systems, using a bruchid host, a pteromalid wasp (A.c.) and a braconid one (H.p.). Though the populations first oscillated mildly in the host-A.c.system, after adding H.p., the host and A.c.increased gradually the amplitude of population fluctuations and, finally, the two populations fluctuated quite large and emergence of chaos was detected by LENNS and RSM in the 3 species system. The two wasps parasitize from the fourth instar larva to the pupa, though H.p.prefers a slightly younger host stages than A.c.. The attacking rate of A.c.depends strongly on host density per bean but not for H.p.. In larval competition between the two parasitoids, the first attacker is likely to be more advantageous irrespective of the species. Shimada, M.Tuda, and H.C.J.Godfray constructed models by two approaches : a top-down time-series model and a bottom-up stage-structured model with niche separation. We examined which factor (s)
and process (es) change the host and A.c.populations from stable to chaotic dynamics in the 3 species system with H.p..
In addition, Shimada studied community structure of legume-bruchid systems in the New World ; Hawaii, Arizona and Mexico. Collecting drying matured legume seed pods, he investigated emergent bruchid species and the relative abundances. Based on the data, he constructed trees of niche similarities among bruchids in three districts. They showed more complicated branching in Arizona and Mexico because of one-to-multiple correspondence between legumes and bruchids. The results suggest host-shift through adaptation may be comparable enough to, or much stronger than, phylogenetic constraint.
Y.Iwasa studied evolutionary gemes in host plant-herbivore interactions and, with Tuda, evolutionary changes in local population capacity and population dynamics, based on ESS.Godfray and M.P.Hassell further studied host-parasite dynamics and coevolution with metapopulation structures.
All the studies concerning the international joint project are discovering important effects of spatial processes on ecological and genetic diversities in host-parasite systems.