|Budget Amount *help
¥4,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥1,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥2,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,100,000)
1.This study discusses mainly stone axs (adze) and iron axs (adze) in Yayoi period, because we can observe clearly that the material of the axs (adze) transited stone to iron in Japan.
2.The transition from stone tools into iron tools didn't happen suddenly. After thier coexisting in the early stage, the rate of relying on iron tools gradually became higher.
3.The transition began earlier in the west part of Japan islands (ex.Kyushu) than in the east part. In Kyushu island, the transition started from between the end of Early Yayoi and the beginning of the Middle Yayoi period and finished in the end of it. We suppose that it began in first half of Middle Yayoi period and finished in between the middle and second half of Late Yayoi period in Kinai. And it is supposed that it started from second half of Middle Yayoi and finished in second half of Late Yayoi period in the east of Tokai. The transition into Iron implements started earlier in the west than in the east of Japan.
4.As for stone
tools, small plano-convex adze started extinction earlier. On the other hand, large ax for the felling survived later.
5.As for iron implements, small plano-convex adze, remade from fragments of imported cast-iron implements, emerged earlier and they were replaced by forged iron implements later. The former, after thire emerging in the end of Early Yayoi period, were produced in the large in the first half of Middle Yayoi and reduced to be secondary later. The latter emreged in the second half of Middle Yayoi and became primary iron implements.
6.Plano-convex stone adze were replaced by small plano-convex adze, remade from fragments of imported cast-iron implements and stone axs for the felling, by forged iron axs in Kyushu. In the other area where the transition became later, both stone adze and axs were superseded by forged iron adze and axs.
7.Forged iron axs (adze) have two types, flat one and socketed one. It is more difficult to produce socketed axs than flat axs. Though socketed axs were mainly produced in Kyushu, flat axs were produced primarily and socketed one were secondly in Kinai. And only flat axs were produced in the east of Tokai. The technique for making iron axs (adze) were higher in the west than in the east of Japan. We can recognize these differences in the technique until the beginning of Kofun period.
8.There were inequality in the shape of iron axs and in the technique for making of it in Late Yayoi period. This fact shows that there were many ways in diffusion of the techniqe and in circulation of raw materials of iron. Less