|Budget Amount *help
¥12,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥12,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥3,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥8,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥8,600,000)
From ancient times human have been strongly interested in flower colors. World main flowers, such as rose, tulips, chrysanthemum, and carnation have never blue colors. Many breeders challenged to produce them, but the efforts were fruitless.
We provided the chemical evidences for blue flower color developments. Protocyanin, a blue pigment from Centaurea cyanus, was a metal-complex anthocyanin, composed with six succinylcyanin, an anthocyanin, six malonylflavones, Fe^<3+> and Mg^<2+>. The blue color mechanism was clarified to be arising from a Legand-to-Metal-Charge-Transfer (LMCT), and the structure of the metalloanthocyanin was very similar to that of commelinin, a pigment from Commelina communis. Rearching of blue flowers, Salvia Uliginosa and Nemophila menziesii indicated that metal-complexation is a common for blue flower coloring. Flower color of Hydrangea hybrida changes red through purple to blue. Reconstruction experimemts from the components, delphinidin 3-glucoside, isochlogen
ic acid, chlogenic acid, and Al^<3+>existing in sepals of the plant were carried out. Blue color was realized by the anthocyanin, isochlogenic acid and Al^<3+> at pH 4.0, while red was at less pH3.0.
Petal color of morning glory, Ipomoea tricolor cv Heavenly blue changes from purple red at bud to sky blue at opening flower, and then the color returns to the first at the fate. However, the pigment, Heavenly Blue Anthocyanin (HBA), does not change during blooming process. By using proton-selective-microeloctrode the pH of living cell of the petal was measured. The flower changes its petal color from red to blue during blooming, because of vacuolar pH increasing from 6.6 to 7.7.
On the basis of chemical evidences for blue coloring, cDNA,flavonoid 3', 5' hydroxylase gene toward delphinidin from Petunia was prepared and it was transducted to carnation successfully to produce a new purple color flower, Moondust. And also cDNA for transacylase of aromatic acyl group to sugar OH purple (AT) was cloned from Gentiana makioi, and the charactaristic was studied. Less