TACHI Susumu University of Tokyo School of Engineering Professor, 大学院・工学系研究科, 教授 (50236535)
ISHIKAWA Masatoshi University of Tokyo School of Engineering Associate Professor, 大学院・工学系研究科, 助教授 (40212857)
CHINZEI Tsuneo University of Tokyo Graduate school of Madicine Research Associate, 大学院・医学系研究科, 助手 (20197643)
MATSUURA Hiroyuki University of Tokyo Reseach Center for Advanced Research Associate Science and T, 先端科学技術研究センター, 助手 (30262116)
FUJIMASA Iwao National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Professor, 政策研究大学院大学, 教授 (30010028)
|Budget Amount *help
¥10,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥10,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥3,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥6,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,100,000)
1. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE OF A REMOTELY OPERATED SURGICAL SYSTEM :
A prototype of a remotely operated surgical system was designed and developed, and the feasibility of the system was studied. The system was composed of : 1) either two CCD cameras, or microscopic system for microsurgery equipped with two CCD cameras, which allow stereoscopic images ; 2) a goggle-shaped head mounted display ; 3) a robot arm with manipulators at the arm head ; 4) master manipulators to control the movement of the robot arm and slave manipulators. The signals of the visual information from the CCDs, and the remote control signals of the slave manipulators from the master manipulators, were trasferred through two ISDN lines. In order to study the feasibility of the system, trial to cut or coagulate target points of animal tissues by a laser beam through a laser fiber gripped by the slave manipulator were performed using the system from the next room, or from another institute about 10 km away.
The use of
stereoscopic images enabled the operators to have a sense of distance, and thus allow them to move the slave manipulator ; to the optimum position easily, although there was a very short delay between the manipulation of the master manipulator and the movement of the slave manipulator this was mainly due to the delay in processing the image and the control signals and in the conversion between those signals and the ISDN signal.
2. MANIPULATORS : A master and slave manipulator system was designed and developed originally. The system is composed of several layrs of metal rings which are connected with each other by wires, and was used putting it on the fingers. The wire was used to detect the deviation of the master manipulator which causes in accordance with the deviation of the position of the finger, and as well, to transmit the force (which is acted to each slave manipulator) to each finger by restricting the movement of the fingers of the operator.
A robot hand system which consists of four fingers and allow to grip objects with optimum force using the impedance control method, and a visual tracking system which allow super high speed (l msec) tracking using parallel processing method, were tried to be introduced into the tele-operating surgical system. At present, an attempt to equip a sensor system using pressure sensing rubber is being made in order to feedback pressure distribution which is acting the robot hand to the fingers of the operator.
3. GENERATION OF ARTIFICIAL SENSATIONS BY STIMULATING PERIPHERAL NERVE FIBERS
Microneurogram method was used in order to generate 'high grade' artificial sensations by stimulating single sensory nerve fiber (in peripheral nerve) using awake human subjects. The micro-stimulation of the nerve fiber enabled the subjects to generate the sense of touch, pain, etc., although further studies are necessary to confirm how the amplitude and frequency of the stimulation affect the generated sensations.
4. ELECTRODES CAPABLE OF LONG-TERM,MULTI-CHANNEL STIMULATING OF NERVE FIBERS
A prototype of a nerve-regenerative electrode which allows long-term, multi-channel stimulation of the peripheral nerve fibers was designed and developed. The electrode was implanted at the sciatic nerve of the rats, and it was confirmed that the implanted electrode functioned well. Less