|Budget Amount *help
¥1,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥1,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,100,000)
The aims of study are to mention what is the role of the Buddhism in society, what is the real state of the Zen proctice in medieval Japan. During the medival period (roughly thirteenth-sixteenth centuries) Soto School rapidly expanxced from small manastic community to several extended networks of temples spread throughout the rual areas of nearly every Japanese provinse. Soto monks developed new forms of monastic organization, new methods of Zen instruction, and new applications for Zen rituals within lay life. These developments play a profound role in medieval rural society.
The secret initiation documents (kirigami), traditionally handed down within manys Soto lineages, they recorded secret instructions for the performance of ritual. They were used at 1all levels of society for teaching almost any endeavor centered on private master-disciple lineages, such as theatrical performance, poetry composition, martial arts, secret religious practices, and especially Buddhism. In dedieval Ja
pan, Soto monks had to undergo a series of initiations in which they were instructed by means of secret recorded on individual sheets of paper.
The regional dissemination of Japanese Zen Buddhism, and of the Soto school in particular, advanced hand-in-hand with the population of Zen funeral services. Japanese Zen became strongly associated with funeral rites. Buddhist funerals were not widely popurized until the medieval period, when Soto and other new Buddhist orders expanded into the countryside. Funeral rites originally intended only for Zen monks were modified into ritual confirmations, of salvation for lay people.
A variety of disparate rituals could be performed at different temples depending on the requests of the individual mouners. Japanese funeral rites developed in response to traditional native conceptions of the after life, ancestors and hausehold responsibilities. Medieval Soto monks transformed monastic practices into rites able to address the religious needs of laypersons outside the monastery. Also "Jukai" had playd the important role. Japanese practice cannot be understood in isolation without consideration of other meditative and shamanistic traditions in Japan, for example "Shugen-do", "Ommyo-do" etc. For local villegers who expected the Zen masters to pacify evil spirits, summonrain, or empower talismans, the meditative powers of monks energized simple folk magic. Traditional Zen practice ultimately inited the dispert orientations and social contexts into a vertically intergrated religious whole.
This study focuses on the three key components of medieval Zen practice and prapagation Koan training, precept ordinations and lay funerals.
We are going to study kirigami, to make these matters clear. Now we must collect the colloquial commentorise, which are unknown. Less