|Budget Amount *help
¥2,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥1,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,500,000)
The present research investigated implicit cultural codes in the classrooms of Japanese elementary schools by focusing on classroom displays. These displays were considered as "mediation" for classroom activities and means for enculturation process in educational institutions. One hundred and two classrooms selected from seventy-two elementary schools were surveyed by their graduates : photographic recording of all the displays in each classroom were made by digital camera, and interview data with classroom teachers were also collected when available.
The contents analyzes and code analyzes on the collected displays revealed the following results :
1) Displays are categorized into i) goals, ii) announcement, iii) publicity news, iv) pupils' works, v) schedule, vi) role allocation, vii) lunch menus, viii) learning materials, ix) individual messages, x) songs, xi) manners and etiquettes, xii) rules, xiii) safety and management information and xiv) spontaneous works ;
2) Spatial arrangement of displays showed particular structure as the following : the front space represents teachers' control, management and goal-setting, the side space represents individual pupil's horizontal relationships and the back space represents class identity and belongingness.
3) Most displays are directed from teachers to pupils, and addressed to various levels of groups (class, work groups, gender groups and individual).
4) The contents and distribution of displays showed high similarity among different classes and grades, and thus uniformity and ritualization were observed.
These results were discussed in terms of its implication for understanding Japanese school and classroom culture with particular emphasis on the lack of negotiation process between teachers and pupils in making of displays in Japanese classrooms.