|Budget Amount *help
¥1,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,800,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
Fiscal Year 1995 : ¥1,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,100,000)
Our Findings through our historical research are as follows :
(1) We discovered plenty of discourses on embryo or fetus education in European history, though most historians of education inclined to admit that discourses of fetus education which has been dominant in Japan were restricted in oriental areas.
(2) Plato and Aristotle referred to fetus education in their famous books (Law and Politics). Further, Hippocrates and Soranus emphasized the regimen of women who were with their child in their wombs.
(3) Ancient discourses were transmitted to early modern midwifery books and house-management books through middle ages ; For example, James Guillimeau, Child-birth, 1612, and William Gouge, Of Domesticall Duties, 1622.
(4) We could find a typical and detailed discourse of fetus education in Thomas Tryon, A New Method of Educating Children, 1695.
(5) Tryon considered the fetus as a micro-cosmos in the same way as Paracelsus. Therefore, Tryon emphasized the sympathy between the mother and the fetus.
(6) However, such thought of sympathy was broken down by the dispute over the power of the mother's imagination in the early 18th century England. The influence of mother's imagination on the fetus was denied. The fetus ceased to be a micro-cosmos in the mother's womb.
(7) Our report papers are consisted of 3 chapters ; Genealogy of Fetus Education in Europe, Anthology of European Fetus Education, J.P.Frank's Medical police and Demographic Practice.