|Budget Amount *help
¥1,200,000 (Direct Cost: ¥1,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1996: ¥400,000 (Direct Cost: ¥400,000)
Fiscal Year 1995: ¥800,000 (Direct Cost: ¥800,000)
1.52 children and their mothers were recruited when the children were 4 months to take part in this research. Two home observations and two visits to the lab were made during the research period of one year. Children's temperament were assessed by questionnaire and lab observations. Mothers, response to their children's emotional expressions and their manner in regulating their children's emotion during interaction were observed. Among children's tempermental characteristics, 'soothability' received the highest score bymothers, followed by 'attentiveness', 'smile/laughter', 'activity', 'distress to limitation', and 'habituation to novelty'. In general, mothers tended to rate their children as 'easy to soothe'. At 7 months, 8 children were rated by their mothers as both 'high activity' and 'difficulty to soothe', and 5 as 'high activity' and 'prone to become distress as a result of limitation'. At 11 months, however, these children and their mothers did not show an easily recognizable p
attern of emothional expressions, nor did their mothers showed a particular pattern of emotion regulation toward them. The relationship between the child's temperament and the caregiver's emotional regulating behavior is more complex than was expected.
2.50 children were observed in the lab when they were 20 months. Their tempermant was assessed and observed at 3 years and 4 years, respectively. In the lab, they were observed under emotion eliciting conditions (fear, anger and pleasure). Their mothers were asked to predict their responses to different situations before the lab observation began. Children's Behavioral Questionnaire (CBQ) which included 16 scales such as 'activity level', 'focusing on approach/attention', 'implusivity', 'behavioral inhibition' were included in the CBQ.At 3 years, the CBQ was conducted by correspondence through mail, and at 4 years it was adminstered to the mother when she visited the lab with the child. Results show (1) Temperament as assessed in the lab and maternal report : Only Fear (lab) ** Anger (CBQ) (negative correlation) and Pleasure (lab) ** Fear (CBQ) showed significant relationship. Fear (lab) ** Perceptual sensitivity (CBQ) showed tendency in correlation. (2) Temperament assessed in the lab and the 5 upper dimensions resulted from factor analysis of CBQ did not show any significant correlation. Anger (lab) ** Sensitivity to stimulation (CBQ) showed tendency for correlation. (3) Temperament assessed in the lab and maternal report at 4 years : Fear (lab) ** Perceptual sensitivity (CBQ) and Anger (lab) ** Behavioral Inhibition (CBQ) (negative correlation) showed significant correlations. Whereas Fear (lab) ** Behavioral Inhibition (CBQ) and Anger (lab) ** Perceptual sensitivity (CBQ) (negative correlation) showed tendency for correlation. Finally, (4) Temperament assessed in the lab and the 5 upper dimensions resulted from factor alanysis of CBQ showed only Fear (lab) ** Sensitivity to stimulation (CBQ) to be significantly correlated. Less