TOZAKI Hajime Teikyo University, Faculty of Economics, Assistant Professor, 経済学部, 講師 (40276762)
FUKAO Yoko Osaka University of Foreign Languages, Assistant Professor, 外国語学部, 助教授 (20193815)
TEI Shinbai Daito Bunka University, Faculty of Foreign Languages, Assistant Professor, 外国語学部, 助教授 (70236959)
UCHIDA Tomoyuki Daito Bunka University, Faculty of International Relations, Professor, 国際関係学部, 教授 (80193895)
WAKABAYASHI Keiko Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Professor, 農学部, 教授 (60293015)
|Budget Amount *help
¥22,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥22,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥6,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥8,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥8,400,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥7,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥7,400,000)
China is now in the process of the third economic transformation. By the 1970's, she had completed in building a heavy industrial structure, which supported military. industries. The reform and open-up policy which was launched in 1979 brought about a remarkable development in the production of lower level home electric endurables such as TV sets, refrigerators and cleaners. Then in the third phase, the heavy industrial structure has been forced to change into a more balanced one. Entering into the 1990's, China began to suffer from excessive production powers of those newly developed industries, which has compelled her to upgrade the industrial structure. The new structure would include housing, automobile, electronic and communication media industries, as well as infrastructure and environmental industries. This is the third stage of development, which China is currently going through.
In the meantime, during the second stage period, environment, social welfare and education duly emph
asized. These sectors still remain as weak parts. Due to the rapid were not urbanization and a huge population, these sectors have emerged as restricting factors to the country's overall development. The present project has studied whether these elements are and will be the factors to restrict a further development of national economy.
Environmental Problems : These will not be a restricting element in the future. By developing environmental industries, it is more likely to prompt economic development as a whole through expanding job opportunities, though people's living environment will further deteriorate. One of the most serious aspects is the destruction of the ecological system, especially that caused by water shortage in Northern and Western parts of China. Water to the territory is comparable to a blood system to a human body. Therefore, water shortage and polluted water can possibly give serious damage to the fundamental bases of society and could endanger its very survival. The destruction of ecology is also caused by the destruction of forests, erosion and excessive feeding of animals and cattle.
Population and Welfare Problems : Though China has a huge population, the supply of food has been sufficient and will remain so in the future. A future problem lies in the shortage of energy and basic materials, which will make China over-dependent on imports for their supply. It is conceivable therefore, that China will be plagued by a huge import-export imbalance in the event of a fall in exports. Among population problems, an agingissue will be the most serious in the short run. This will impose a big financial burden on the government and enterprises. The social cost will greatly increase.
Education Problem : During the 1980s, "money-makingism" emerged throughout the country. Dismantling of people's communes weakened financial power of each level of local governments, leading to a decline of rural education. In the 1990's, however, the necessity of the construction of the educational system has begun to be emphasized. The effort to spread the nine-year compulsory education is going on. The possibility for education to restrict further development is rather small.Overseas Chinese investment on education is remarkable in Fujian and Guandong provinces. Many Chinese youths who studied abroad have come back to China and have begun to play important roles in society, especially in scientific and technological institutions, financial circles and governments. They will possibly be key persons to change China's existing way of thinking and social system. Less