HIROTA Mitsuru Shinshu Univ.Fac.of Agric.Associate Professor, 農学部, 助教授 (90199133)
HAYASHI Hideo Osaka Pref.Univ.Fac.of Agric.Professor, 農学部, 教授 (30128772)
KAWANAKA Masanori Natl.Inst.Infect.Disenses Dept.of Parasitol Lender, 寄生動物部, 室長 (50109964)
NISHIDA Toshisada Kyoto Univ.Graduate School of Sci.Professor, 理学研究科, 教授 (40011647)
KOSHIMIZU Koichi Kinki Univ.Fac.of Biology-oriented Sci.& Tech.Professor, 生物理工学部, 教授 (90026518)
|Budget Amount *help
¥15,300,000 (Direct Cost: ¥15,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1997: ¥7,700,000 (Direct Cost: ¥7,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1996: ¥7,600,000 (Direct Cost: ¥7,600,000)
Physiological significance of the plants non-nutritiously ingested by primates in the wild has recently been inquired. Some of such plants were reported to be used as medicine. Chemical studies on the constituents occurring in such medicinal plants may lead us to find new bioactive natural products, and to understand more the feeding behavior of primates in the wild. This project has been directed to select possible medicinal plants used by primates in the wild, and to search for their constituents of biological and physiological significance. Socioecological analysis may be possible by such plant constituents.
1.Nishida newly selected 3 species, Crotalaria sp., Ficus thonningii and Pseudospondias microcarpa, as possible medicinal plants of Mahale chimpanzee. He also collected the leaves of Aspilla mossambiscensis, which has been a chimpamzee's medicine by its physical effect. While, Ohigashi and Kawanaka found that the leaves contain potent antiparastitic constituents, suggesting that
chemical approach to the chimpanzee's use of this plant is necessary.
2.Chemical studies were carried out in 3 species of plants from Mahale, and 1 species from Ndoki in Congo. From Vernonia amygdalina, the most prominent medicinal plant used by Mahare chimpanzees, 3 new steroids named vernoniol E,G and H were isolated and chemically identified. Furthermore, non-glycoside forms of the steroids characteristically occurring in this plant (vernoniols) were confirmed to possess generally much higher antiparasitic activities than the corresponding glycosides (vernoniosides) (Ohigashi and Kawanaka). Then, it was hupothesized that the chimpanzee at Mahare uses V.amygdalina for parasite diseased. Hayashi found the occurrence of anti-feeding constituent of silkworm in Trema orientalis. He isolated an antiffedant, the chemical property of which was partly characterized. Hirota isolated and identified a new superoxide generation inhibitor from Senna spectabilis. Ohigashi found the occurrence of flavonoids in Thomendersia laurifolia, a possible medicinal plant used by Gorilla at Ndoki, suggesting the plant to be a physiologically functional food of gorilla.
3.Further plants non-nutritiously ingested by primates in the wild were obtained from Indonesia, Guinea and Tanzania (Nishida, Koshimizu, Ohigashi), which are now being estimated their nutritinal values (Fushiki) and bioactivity-potentials (Koshimizu, Kawanaka and Ohigashi). Koshimizu has revealed that anti-tumor promoting activity was found in such non-nutrititive plants at a higher rate than in the plants randomly selected. Some of species in the plant families Moraceae and Combretacea are indicated to be promising for potent anti-tumor promoters. Several primate medicinal plants have hitherto been found in these 2 plant families. This finding along with the primate use of flavonoid rich plant species provides us a new idea of "functional food use of primates". Less