|Budget Amount *help
¥5,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥2,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,400,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥3,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,300,000)
To understand the regime change in the eastern European countries, it is necesarry to examine institutional aspects, democratization, introduction of market economy. The short term regime change is limited to only political dimension. On the other hand, the process of economic liberalization needs long term efforts as economic reform must overcome various economic difficulties. Such change has been seen in Romania, which has been going through regime change under the linkage between domestic and international politics.
In addition, regarding the political change of the Islamic countries in Mediterranean area, social and economic problems such as population growth, unemployment, enlargement of slums surrounding big cities, widening gaps between the rich and the poor has become serious. This research clarifies the present situation in those countries that many people are absorbed in the ideology of Islamic movements which advocate "social justice" and "equality" according to traditional Islamic concepts. Furthermore, more and more muslims who hope the improvement of their livings consider to emigrate to the EU countries. However, the EU countries, which also have the unemployment issues and the rise of right wing radicals which advocate expulsion of immigrants, have to examine seriously the economic support for the neighboring Islamic countries.
In addition, the EU has began to hold inter-govenmental conferences since March 1996 to prepare for the membership of the Eastern European and the Mediterranean countries. Although the EU realized the signing of the Amsterdam Treaty, the reform of internal institutions for the next enlargement has been reserved. As a result, the dificulties of harmonious development of "deepening and enlargement" has become obvious. In addition, one can say that in such process, the relationship between the EU and Turkey has become delicate, and this has become some apprehension about the future development of the EU.