I surveyed residents' reaction to their urban environmental issues in three districts, and then analyzed it with C.Offe's framework on social movements. The framework focused on four characteristics of social movements : 1) actors, 2) issues, 3) values, and 4) modes of action.
1.The residents' movement against a plan to construct a landfill for non-flammable waste materials in Shiraki-cho, Asakita-ku, Hiroshima city : 1) Anorganization in which some old-time residents with mountains and forests take a leading part 2) The municipalities force the problem of a waste site upon old-time residents while seeking consent of influential residents in the area 3) The residents' wish to preserve their vital source of water supply, and their questions about mass production/consumption system 4) A planting-trees trust campaign is noteworthy, and among other campaigns are signature-collecting and publicity.
2.The residents' movement against a plan to set up a JR bus station in Koyo New Town, Asakita-k
u, Hiroshima city : 1) Two neighborhood self-governing associations 2) A conflict between residents who are afraid that the environment should be spoiled and the municipal government who seeks a station site 3) Environmentalism by home-oriented residents who wish to protect their surroundings, and grass-roots democracy in the self-governing associations 4) Signature-collecting for a petition, publicity, sessions, etc.
3.The residents' attempt to improve the inconvenience for shopping without changing their desirable living environment in Sanda city : 1) Neighborhood self-governing associations 2) The residents complain of the inconvenience of shopping due tp shortage of stores in the residential area ; however, it is difficult to construct new shops under conditions provided in land use planning. Furthermore, oppositions from residents, near planned sites will be inevitable. 3) A demand for a zone planning system to be framed by experts on city planning, and for a more convenient life 4) Joint community planning by officials from the self-governing associations and the municipal government Less