|Budget Amount *help
¥2,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥1,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,400,000)
1. Since 1960 Japan's civil society has continuously and steadily become more pluralized in terms of proliferation in the number of associations, diversification concerning types of associations, and strengthening engagement of citizens.
2. However, its present configuration still retains characteristics of a developmental state, that is, supremacy of the business sector in number and domination by bureaucracies in range of jurisdiction.
3. In the 1990s, Japan's civil society underwent a more citizen-oriented transformation. The nature of social capital in Japan seems to be changing toward a more civilian mode, which is supported by, interestingly, the old establishment actors and the mass media, in addition to citizen-initiated movements at the grass-roots level. In this sense the nature of the civil society
has been transformed and has matured.
B.As for Korea :
1. By contrast, the Korean situation recorded very drastic and fluctuating changes. The number of organizations decreased until 1
991 and then started to rapidly climb to produce a three-fold increase between 1991 and 1996. Organization density of organization also increased in number from one-third of Japan's figure in 1991 to the same level in 1996. Very drastic eruptive growth occurred in the N.E.C.(not elsewhere classified, mainly citizen-led organizations) and labor categories, and then the composition shifted from demonstrating a supremacy in the business sector to dominance by N.E.C.organizations in terms of numbers.
2. Korea's situation since 1991 appears revolutionary, but it is problematic in terms of interpretation : Does it show a association-bubble, substantial well-established pluralism or an elite-led pluralism?
C.Based on my survey results, I have made the following tentative hypotheses concerning the relationship between the formation of civil society organizations and democratization or regime shifts in Japan.
1. The surging (increasing) waves describing the establishment of civil society organizations and interest associations co-vary with waves of democratization. Waves in Japanese democratization have been strongly affected by trends of democratization as defined by Samuel Huntington.
2. Regime shifts, changes, or transformations occurred during periods of (stagnant) troughs in group formation waves, often occurring during periods of consolidation, rearrangement and/or decreases in the number of civil society organizations. In other words, regime changes followed periods of increases in numbers of civil society organizations. These changes were not necessarily "democratic". Less