|Budget Amount *help
¥1,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥700,000)
It was widely recognized that the main characteristics of the Japanese Corporate Governance system were, (1)Keiretsu system among the Japanense big companies, (2)main bank system with long-term mutual trust, and (3)the existence of the stable shareholders, which was enabled through the mutual holding of the mutual shares. This stability was said to be the reason why the Japanese managers have kept their strong leaderships and accomplished the rapid, energetic growth after the War. Compared to the sytem of the United States or England, this system seemed to be very unique to Japan, and some have discussed that this was due to the Japanese originality. But as a fact, it was not a Japanese original.
In Germany, in a little bit different way, they have created a very strong stable system, which could said to be somehow more powerful than the Japanese one. In Germany, there are not definite Keiretsu system like Japan, but still there is a long-term system of the mutual holding of the the mutual shares among the big companies like Japan. At the center of the mutual shareholding, there are some big banks and insurance companies, called as 'Haus Bank' system which has functioned as a core for the stability. To a surprise, the big banks and the big insurance companies have developed a mutual shareholding system in themselves, too. The shares of these companies were held one after another, making a ring. It could be said that this system was pretty near to a kind of cartel, and therfore the stability of the whole German industrial society was kept through the stable Ring at the heart of the German economies.