Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)
Zootechnical science/Grassland science
|Research Institution||IWATE UNIVERSITY|
SAIGA Suguru Iwate University, Faculty of Agriculture, Professor, 農学部, 教授 (10183360)
王 志偉 (株)飼料作物改良増殖技術研究所, 研究員
佐々木 亨 日本飼料作物種子協会, 西那須野支所, 研究員
SASAKI Thru Japan Forage Seed Association, Nixhinasuno Branch, Researcher
|Project Fiscal Year
1996 – 1998
Completed(Fiscal Year 1998)
|Budget Amount *help
¥2,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,400,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥800,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥500,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥1,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,100,000)
|Keywords||Endophyte / Perennial ryegrass / Environmental resistance / Ecotype / Over-seedin / Alkaloid / エンドファイト / ペレニアルライグラス / 環境抵抗性 / 生態型 / オーバーシード / アルカロイド|
Neotyphodium endophyte produces animal toxicoses, and on the other hand, gives desirable traits including resistance to insects and to drought. This study was to utilize the characteristics of endophyte into grass breeding.
To begin with, endophyte infection rate was investigated for perennial ryegrass ecotypes collected from highlands in German Alps and Kitakami highland by 1990. Any endophyte was not observed in both ecotypes. This indicates that endophyte does not contribute to cold resistance.
Endophyte infection rate was investigated for marketed forage seed of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. Through these two species, there was great difference among cultivars. Compared cultivars between their use, endophyte infection rates were higher in turf type than in forage type. Compared cultivars among countries originated, US cultivars indicated highest infection rate, followed by European cultivars, and Japanese cultivars were lowest.
Five perennial ryegrass cultivars and three tall fe
scue cultivars originated in Japan were all free from endophyte, and the infection rates were all 0.0%. Individual plants with endophyte must be excluded from in the process of selection. Plants with endophyte may be less adaptable under wet weather condition like in Japan.
Ryegrass straw and fescue straw caused animal disorder at Morioka and other places showed high concentration in these alkaloids. Some tall fescue straw marketed in Iwate prefecture indicated higher ergovaline concentration than threshold level of animal disorder. There are some cases that animal disorder occurred in Japan under the threshold level. This may mean that the threshold level in Japan is lower than that in USA.
Endophyte infected plants are low adaptable under Japanese weather condition. Then, the infection rate was investigated under practical conditions. In these cases, as golf courses, grass seeds were over-seeded on turf where ground coverage by grasses was worse, endophyte infection rates were low. However, when grass seeds were seeded newly on bare ground in sports ground, the rate was high in perennial ryegrass although that was 0% in tall fescue.
Use of genetically improved turf-grasses containing useful endophytes is of great value. To use endophyte characteristics for forage crop breeding, more knowledge including difference of growth rate between plants and endophyte fungi are needed. Less
Research Output (3results)