|Budget Amount *help
¥1,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1996 : ¥900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥900,000)
This study examired the acquisition of the Japanese voice system by learners of Japanese as a foreign/second language (JFL/JSL), including the direct passive (DP), indirect passive (IP) and the benefactive ; all function as A means to signal shiten or point of view in Japanese. Earlier studies by Tanaka have indica tednative speakers use the passive voice or the benefactive to unify the point of view in complex/compound sentences. However, non-native speakers fail to do so.
Data were obtained froma production test which elicited the structurse mentioned above and complex/compound sentences from subjects using picture prompts. Twoapproaches were used : (1) a cross-sectional study of TEL learner language ; and (2) a follow-up study with JSL learners.
The results indicate that the ability to produce the benefactives and complex/compound sentences improves inboth JFL and JSL environments. However, the ability to use shiten and the IP improves slightly in the JSL context, but not in the JFL environment. Moreover, concerning the benefactive, 'te-kureru, 'which has the same point of view as the active voice, is produced at an earlier stage than te-morau u, which has the same point of view of the passive voice. Concerning the IP, learners tend to use the DP structure.
Finally, in order to clarify the acquisition order for the Japanese voice system, implicational scaling was used for the data of English speakers in both JSL and JFL contexts, and Chinese, Indonesian, , Malay, and Korean speakers in JSL contexts. The results indicate that, irrespective of the context or the L1, the benefactive is produced first, then the DP, and finally the IP.These three categories form animplicational hierarchy. Prodution data from oral proficiency interviews with NSs of Korean, Chinese, and English support an acquisition order for the Japanese voice sys tern.