|Budget Amount *help
¥2,500,000 (Direct Cost : ¥2,500,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥200,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥600,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,700,000)
The present study conducted fieldwork and theoretical analyses of activities of disaster volunteer organizations both in Japan and in the US, and compared their social basis. According to the comparisons, this study not only analyzed practical significance of disaster volunteers in future disaster mitigation system, but also proposed a theoretical framework for future research in disaster volunteers.
First, we continued our participant observation in Nippon Volunteer Network Active in Disaster, which was established after the Great Hanshin Earthquake, and wrote an ethnography in detail. Second, we conducted interviews to and collected documents from the Emergency Network of Los Angeles (ENLA) that emerged after Northridge earthquake. We also studied the life-histories of core members of ENLA to identify their motivations to take part in the ENLA. Third, we proposed a theoretical framework for future study on disaster volunteers by referring not only to group dynamics, but also to various related areas. Finally, by taking into account the reports from the disaster field immediately after the Kobe quake and the recent movement toward establishment of a nation-wide network of disaster volunteer organizations, we presented practical views for the disaster relief system based on the differences between Japan and the US, and a practical and theoretical view for the studies on disaster volunteers in future.
We found that, regardless of differences between Japan and the US, activities in local communities during the peace time have impacts on efficiency of volunteer activities in an emergency. Individual volunteers were motivated differently between two countries, it is needed to establish nation-wide and local network among volunteer organizations in Japan. It was reconfirmed that the framework of group dynamics could be most applicable to the research in disaster volunteers.