Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A).
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||TOKYO METROPLITAN UNIVERSITY|
MATSUZONO Makio FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND HUMANITIES, TOKYO METROPOLITAN UNIV., PROFESSOR, 人文学部, 教授 (00061408)
ODA Makoto DEPT.OF LITERATURE AND ARTS, SEIJO UNIV., PROFESSOR, 文芸学部, 教授 (50214143)
KOMMA Tohru DEPT.OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES, KANAGAWA UNIV., PROFESSOR, 外国語学部, 教授 (40145347)
NAKABAYASHI Nobuhiro DEPT.OF LITERATURE, KANAZAWA UNIV., PROFESSOR, 文学部, 教授 (30019848)
シミユ ワンディバ ナイロビ大学, アフリカ研究所, 教授
|Project Period (FY)
1997 – 1999
Completed(Fiscal Year 1999)
|Budget Amount *help
¥19,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥19,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥5,000,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,000,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥6,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥7,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥7,700,000)
|Keywords||socio-cultural change / nationalism / self-help group / women's self-help group / tribalism / Christian Denominations / African Independent Church / Kenya / 生業形態 / 互助組織 / 協同組合 / 長老裁判 / 慣習法 / 家族計画 / ジェンダー / エスニシティ / 開発|
The Project carried out an anthropological research in six ethnic groups in Kenya (the Gusii, Isukha, Kipsigis, Kuria, Luo, and Mbere), regarding how these societies had been making themselves adjusted to the exogenous socio-cultural changes induced through various sorts of Government-initiated nation building policies. A part of the Project's findings is summarized as follows :
1. Women's self-help groups that started in farming societies in 1980s have since tended more and more to function as positive recipients and campaigners of government policies. Their number is steadily increasing and they have become more and more diverse in their objectives and internal managements.
2. Traditional gender relationships are still preserved intact, as seen in the labor organization of new local industries, the management of local self-help groups, and people's reactions towards modern family planning methods. Legal and judicial reform remains insufficient for eradicating the fixed, discriminatory
3. Women's voluntary groups are generally more democratic in decision making process and they are far more open to outsiders in membership than men's or male dominated voluntary groups.
4. Recently introduced multi-party system has brought a hightened political interest among Kenyan people, but at the same time it is instrumental for activating people's tribalistic sentiment, which would obstruct development of their national consciousness.
5. Various Christian denominations have become an integral part of local culture since their introduction into colonial Kenya and more conspicuously so after Independence. Both the church administration and the interpretation of Christian dogmas and rituals are unique in each region, reflecting its indigenous culture and society.
6. Village courts, or barazas, are formally outside of the national judicial system, but they are playing an important part as a subsidiary judicial apparatus particularly in terms of their arbitration by customary laws.
The above findings are challenging to the future anthropological research in Africa. These findings urge that we rethink definitions of such key concepts as nation state, national culture and Africanization, as well as the relationship obtaining between the state and ethnicity. We shall continue our comparative research, expanding our horizons by delving into cultural changes that have occurred in connection with development projects and NGO's activities. Less