イワノフ ワシリー・ニコ 科学アカデミー人文科学研究所, 所長
IKEDA Tohru Hokkaido University, Faculty of letters, Assistant, 文学部, 助手 (50202891)
佐々木 史郎 国立民族学博物館, 助教授 (70178648)
井上 絋一 北海道大学, スラブ研究センター, 教授 (10091414)
TAKAKURA Hiroki Tokyo Metropolitan University, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Assistant, 人文学部, 助手 (00305400)
YOSHIDA Atsushi Chiba University, Faculty of Letters, Associate Professor, 文学部, 助教授 (00312926)
|Budget Amount *help
¥15,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥15,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥4,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥4,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,800,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥5,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥5,400,000)
The Sakha in the Yakuts region not only present us a living example of the survival of horse herding peoples in the modern world, but they exemplify a historical account of the adaptation of man toward severe climates. This field survey studied the Sakha during summer soltice festivities, taking in video recordings of their lives, and audio recordings of legends and folk songs. The survey indicated evidence that the younger generation was apt toward maintaining the traditional culture, along with their older generation. Horse herding is conducted on relatively small scale grasslands in Alass, formed by thawing of permafrost ground. Horse grazing is done in small area segments of one male unit, and from this practice, it is apparent that the original Mongol grassland herding developed into herding with the two distinct purposes : one, for raising working animals, i.e. horses trained for riding and working ; the other, for raising livestock for meat and leather products. The Sakha consid
er both purposes as equally important.
Reindeer herding is facing extinction, and this has been accelerated by factors such as the former Soviet policy toward ethnic cultures, environmental destruction, and recent Russian economic crisis. Such factors have presented an extreme challenge toward the survival and maintenance of traditional cultures. However, it should be noted that the Nenets of Gydan Peninsular have been able to maintain their traditional lifestyle, consisting of reindeer herding, fishing, and hunting.
With the disappearance of traditional life sustenance activities, such as reindeer herding, hunting, and fishing, hunting for wild animals for the purpose of marketing meat has become increasingly important. Furthermore, the recent onset of Western marketing principles have had a severe impact on the traditional markets for wild meat and fur, established during the Soviet era. Recent environmental protection measures have posed strict limits on hunting and fishing activities, further jeopardizing the continuation of traditional cultures and lifestyles. Less