木南 章 東京大学, 大学院・農学生命科学研究科, 助教授 (00186305)
NAGAKI Masakazu INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY, THE UNIVERSITY OF TSUKUBA, PROFESSOR, 農林学系, 教授 (90003144)
IWAMOTO Izumi FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE, KAGOSHIMA UNIVERSITY, PROFESSOR, 農学部, 教授 (10193773)
OHARA Kotaro FAOULTY OF BIORESOURCES, MIE UNIVERSITY, PROFESSOR, 生物資源学部, 教授 (70024586)
NAKACHI Soushun FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF THE RYUKYU, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, 農学部, 助教授 (70180312)
FUJIMOTO Akimi FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE, TOKYO UNIVERSITY, PROFESSOR, 農学部, 教授 (80147488)
|Budget Amount *help
¥19,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥19,600,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥4,100,000 (Direct Cost : ¥4,100,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥6,900,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,900,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥8,600,000 (Direct Cost : ¥8,600,000)
Viet Nam's gross domestic product (GDP), which grew in real terms at an annual compound rate of 8.4 percent between 1990 and 1997, expanded at amore modest pace in 1998. Per capita income is $351 in 1999 (compared to $300 in 1995), corresponding to a GDP of $27,383 million and a population of about 78 million. Agriculture grew at 2.7 percent, in spite of a combination of drought and flooding in the Central Region. The industry sector grew at a rather healthy 9.3 percent rate, led by strong performance of mining and utilities.
Vietnamese rice production continue to expand since 1975, and rice exports continued since 1989 with about 2 MMT annually till 1996, and exceeded 4 MMT annually since 1997. The income from rice export may not add enough foreign currencies needed for various economic reconstruction programs, but a net surplus of food grains certainly maintains the social's stability of a fast growing population and enabling Vietnam to contribute positively to food security in the wo
rld. Although other factors -- improved technology, increased irrigation systems, and availability of inputs -- contributed to the big leap in Vietnamese rice exports, the underlying factor was the rapid change in government policy toward a socialist type of market economy, often known as 'doi moi'. The change included the 'privatization' of agriculture in which farmers have their own land to till, opening of foreign trade, free domestic distribution of rice, etc. Although the economy has progressed with an increasing tendency, it still has to face big challenges ahead in agriculture. The first is increased rate of land - lost farmers. The result of a government - commissioned survey reported in September 1998 that in five years (1994-1998) there were 136, 338 farming households in the Mekong Delta lost their cultivated land. In other regions, particularly the Central Highlands, similar trend exists. The second is agricultural credit. About 70% of all farmers lack capital for production. But the national rural banks could not satisfy even half of their needs. The Bank for Poor, operating at a subsidized interest rate (0.9% per month), on the other hand, could hardly have enough poor farmer customers because the general fear is that 'they don't know what to do to have enough money to repay the debt'
At the national meeting on agricultural planning for 2000 and beyond in 1999, the prime Minister has emphasized the Government's determination to concentrate national effort in agricultural and rural development. In particular, 'application of appropriate advanced technologies to further increase yields and quality of crops, livestock, aquaculture... ; to increase added values of these products by developing appropriate postharvest technology and processing facilities ; to organize agricultural cooperatives with integrated business from production to marketing. Less