菅原 敏 宮城教育大学, 教育学部, 助手 (80282151)
MORIMOTO Shinji Nat.Inst.Pol.Res., Assist.Prof., 助手 (30270424)
WADA Makoto Nat.Inst.Pol.Res., Asso.Prof., 助教授 (40132716)
SHIOBARA Masataka Nat.Inst.Pol.Res., Asso.Prof., 助教授 (60291887)
AOKI Shuji Tohoku Univ., Grad.School.of Sci., Asso.Prof., 大学院・理学研究科, 助教授 (00183129)
YAMANOUCHI Takashi Nat.Inst.Pol.Res., Prof., 教授 (00141995)
|Budget Amount *help
¥13,800,000 (Direct Cost : ¥13,800,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥6,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥6,400,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥7,400,000 (Direct Cost : ¥7,400,000)
In order to elucidate variations of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere in the Arctic, their comprehensive measurements were carried out at Svalbard in July 1998 and December 1998-March 1999. These measurements provided valuable information about variations and distributions of CO2, CH4, N2O and O3 in the Arctic. These measurements also revealed characteristic features of atmospheric aerosols from winter to spring.
For a better understanding of a 3-dimensional distribution of atmospheric constituents in the Arctic, we made measurements during the period March 6-14, 1998, using a chartered jet aireraft equipped with continuous measurement systems of CO2 and O3, air sampler, aerosol counter, aerosol sampler and others. The aircraft measurements were conducted mainly on transit flight moots of approximately 12 km height over the Arctic Sea. The measurements were also made over Spitzbergen Islands and Pt.Barrow, Alaska, to observed vertical profiles of relevant components from the surface to 12 km. The results showed (1) that the CO2 and O3 concentrations were changed abruptly near the tropopause, suggesting that the vertical air exchange is suppressed, (2) that a positive correlation was clearly seen between the CH4 and N2O concentrations in the stratosphere, which is quite similar to the results obtained in the stratosphere over Sweden in February and March 1997, (3) that the measured vertical profiles of COS suggested that COS is a supplier of sulfur for stratospheric aerosols, (4) that the Arctic haze was sometimes observed to reach the upper troposphere, showing multi-layers, and (5) that by analyzing aerosols collected directly, sulfate particles and sea salt particles were mainly found in the stratosphere and the free atmosphere and below the top of the mixed layer, respectively.