Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B).
|Allocation Type||Single-year Grants|
|Research Institution||KYOTO UNIVERSITY|
KASAHARA Mikio Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Energy Science, Professor, エネルギー科学研究科, 教授 (80027143)
HORVATH Helmuth Univ. Vienna, Institute of Experimental Physics, Professor, 実験物理学科, 教授
YAMAMOTO Kohei Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Energy Science, Lecturer, エネルギー科学研究科, 助手 (10263154)
TOHNO Susumu Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Energy Science, Assoc. Prof., エネルギー科学研究科, 助教授 (80135607)
GANGL Martine s. Univ. Vienna, Institute of Experimental Physics, Researcher, 実験物理学科, 研究員
KRUISZ Christian Univ. Vienna, Institute of Experimental Physics, Researcher, 実験物理学科, 研究員
KRUISZ Chris ウィーン大学, 実験物理学科, 研究員
HELMUTH Horv ウィーン大学, 実験物理学科, 教授
|Project Period (FY)
1997 – 1999
Completed(Fiscal Year 1999)
|Budget Amount *help
¥3,700,000 (Direct Cost : ¥3,700,000)
Fiscal Year 1999 : ¥1,300,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,300,000)
Fiscal Year 1998 : ¥1,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,200,000)
Fiscal Year 1997 : ¥1,200,000 (Direct Cost : ¥1,200,000)
|Keywords||Atmospheric aerosols / Atmospheric environmental effects / Global warming / cooling / Fog and raindrops / Fixation of liquid particles / Elemental analysis / Acid deposition / Long-range transport model / 元素濃度 / PIXE分析 / エアロゾル粒子 / 大気環境 / 元素状炭素 / 有機炭素 / 酸性雨|
Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in environmental problem. To evaluate the effects of aerosol on atmospheric environment, the three works : (1) Physical and chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols, (2) Global warming/cooling effects of atmospheric aerosols, (3) Mechanism of acid rain/acid deposition, were carried out during 1997-1999.
1. Characteristics of atmospheric aerosols
Physical and chemical properties were investigated under the various meteorological and environmental conditions. The particle size distribution of mass was expressed always as a bimodal distribution that was divided into fine and coarse fraction at around 1-2μm. The size distribution of each chemical component was classified into three types : single modal distribution within either fine or coarse fraction and the bimodal one as well as total mass. Water solubility of aerosols depended strongly upon their elemental components. Although Fe, Si and Ti showed high insolubility, almost whole of S a
nd Cl dissolved.
2. Global warming/cooling effects of atmospheric aerosols
The simultaneous measurements of aerosol properties and radiation were performed as the campaign experiments at ground in 1998 and at both ground and aircraft in 2000, as well as the routine measurement. The radiative forcing was calculated from radiation and aerosol data. The average radiative forcing in Kyoto and Nagoya were -1.5 and +3.3W/mィイD12ィエD1, respectively. The difference in their values originates in the difference of chemical composition, i.e. optical property of aerosols.
3. Mechanisms of acid rain/acid deposition
The sampling method and treatment procedures to fix fog-and rain-droplets were investigated and the elemental analysis of the fixed single particle was tried applying PIXE and micro-PIXE analyses. Liquid particles were easily fixed by either exposing to cyanoacrylate vapor or freezing method. The elemental concentrations in single raindrop were obtained as a function of raindrop diameter. The concentrations in raindrop were extremely high at the begging of rain. Less